Exhibit
Table of Contents


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Form 10-K
 
ý      ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015  
 
Or
 
o         TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the Transition period from           to           .
 
Commission File Number 001-34820
 
KKR & CO. L.P.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter) 
Delaware
 
26-0426107
(State or other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
9 West 57th Street, Suite 4200
New York, New York 10019
Telephone: (212) 750-8300
(Address, zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of registrant’s principal executive office.)
 Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common units representing limited
partner interests
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well‑known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter periods that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý No o
 Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S‑K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K.  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
 
 
 
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No ý
The aggregate market value of the common units of the registrant held by non‑affiliates as of June 30, 2015, was approximately $10.1 billion. As of February 22, 2016, there were 449,251,468 Common Units of the registrant outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
None
 


Table of Contents

KKR & CO. L.P.
 
FORM 10-K
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2015
 
INDEX
 
 
Page No.
 
PART 1
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Business
 
 
 
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
 
 
 
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
 
 
 
Item 2.
Properties
 
 
 
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
 
 
 
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
 
 
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
 
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
 
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
 
 
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
 
 
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
 
 
 
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
 
 
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
 
 
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
 
 
 
SIGNATURES
 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This report contains forward looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, our operations and financial performance. You can identify these forward looking statements by the use of words such as "outlook," "believe," "expect," "potential," "continue," "may," "should," "seek," "approximately," "predict," "intend," "will," "plan," "estimate," "anticipate," the negative version of these words, other comparable words or other statements that do not relate strictly to historical or factual matters. Without limiting the foregoing, statements regarding the strategic partnership with Marshall Wace LLP, the declaration and payment of distributions on common units of KKR, the timing, manner and volume of repurchases of common units pursuant to a repurchase program and the expected synergies from the acquisitions or strategic partnerships, may constitute forward-looking statements that are subject to the risk that the benefits and anticipated synergies from such transactions are not realized. Forward looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. We believe these factors include those described under the section entitled "Risk Factors" in this report. These factors should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this report and in our other periodic filings. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

 
 
 


In this report, references to "KKR," "we," "us," "our" and "our partnership" refer to KKR & Co. L.P. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Prior to KKR & Co. L.P. becoming listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") on July 15, 2010, KKR Group Holdings L.P. ("Group Holdings") consolidated the financial results of KKR Management Holdings L.P. and KKR Fund Holdings L.P. (together, the "KKR Group Partnerships") and their consolidated subsidiaries. On August 5, 2014, KKR International Holdings L.P. became a KKR Group Partnership. Each KKR Group Partnership has an identical number of partner interests and, when held together, one Class A partner interest in each of the KKR Group Partnerships together represents one KKR Group Partnership Unit.

References to "our Managing Partner" are to KKR Management LLC, which acts as our general partner and unless otherwise indicated, references to equity interests in KKR's business, or to percentage interests in KKR's business, reflect the aggregate equity of the KKR Group Partnerships and are net of amounts that have been allocated to our principals and other employees and non-employee operating consultants in respect of the carried interest from KKR's business as part of our "carry pool" and certain minority interests. References to "principals" are to our senior employees and non-employee operating consultants who hold interests in KKR's business through KKR Holdings L.P., which we refer to as "KKR Holdings," and references to our "senior principals" are to our senior employees who hold interests in our Managing Partner entitling them to vote for the election of its directors.

References to non-employee operating consultants include employees of KKR Capstone and are not employees of KKR. KKR Capstone refers to a group of entities that are owned and controlled by their senior management. KKR Capstone is not a subsidiary or affiliate of KKR. KKR Capstone operates under several consulting agreements with KKR and uses the "KKR" name under license from KKR.

Prior to October 1, 2009, KKR's business was conducted through multiple entities for which there was no single holding entity, but were under common control of senior KKR principals, and in which senior principals and KKR's other principals and individuals held ownership interests (collectively, the "Predecessor Owners"). On October 1, 2009, we completed the acquisition of all of the assets and liabilities of KKR & Co. (Guernsey) L.P. (f/k/a KKR Private Equity Investors, L.P. or "KPE") and, in connection with such acquisition, completed a series of transactions pursuant to which the business of KKR was reorganized into a holding company structure. The reorganization involved a contribution of certain equity interests in KKR's business that were held by KKR's Predecessor Owners to the KKR Group Partnerships in exchange for equity interests in the KKR Group Partnerships held through KKR Holdings. We refer to the acquisition of the assets and liabilities of KPE and to our subsequent reorganization into a holding company structure as the "KPE Transaction."

In this report, the term "GAAP" refers to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We disclose certain financial measures in this report that are calculated and presented using methodologies other than in accordance with GAAP. We believe that providing these performance measures on a supplemental basis to our GAAP results is

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helpful to unitholders in assessing the overall performance of KKR's businesses. These financial measures should not be considered as a substitute for similar financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, if available. We caution readers that these non-GAAP financial measures may differ from the calculations of other investment managers, and as a result, may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other investment managers. Reconciliations of these non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, where applicable, are included within "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data — Note 13. Segment Reporting" and later in this report under "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Segment Balance Sheet."

This report uses the terms assets under management or AUM, fee paying assets under management or FPAUM, fee related earnings or FRE, economic net income or ENI, equity invested, gross dollars invested, syndicated capital, equity invested, book value and adjusted units. You should note that our calculations of these financial measures and other financial measures may differ from the calculations of other investment managers and, as a result, our financial measures may not be comparable to similar measures presented by other investment managers. These and other financial measures are defined in the section "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition & Results of Operations—Key Financial Measures under GAAP—Segment Operating and Performance Measures" and "— Segment Balance Sheet —Liquidity—Liquidity Needs."

References to "our funds" or "our vehicles" refer to investment funds, vehicles and/or accounts advised, sponsored or managed by one or more subsidiaries of KKR including CLO and CMBS vehicles, unless context requires otherwise. They do not include investment funds, vehicles or accounts of any hedge fund manager with which we have formed a strategic partnership where we have acquired a non-controlling interest.

Unless otherwise indicated, references in this report to our fully exchanged and diluted common units outstanding, or to our common units outstanding on a fully exchanged and diluted basis, reflect (i) actual common units outstanding, (ii) common units into which KKR Group Partnership Units not held by us are exchangeable pursuant to the terms of the exchange agreement described in this report, (iii) common units issuable in respect of exchangeable equity securities issued in connection with the acquisition of Avoca Capital ("Avoca"), and (iv) common units issuable pursuant to any equity awards actually issued or vested but not yet delivered under the KKR & Co. L.P. 2010 Equity Incentive Plan, which we refer to as our "Equity Incentive Plan," but do not reflect common units available for issuance pursuant to our Equity Incentive Plan for which grants have not yet been made.



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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview
We are a leading global investment firm that manages investments across multiple asset classes including private equity, energy, infrastructure, real estate, credit and hedge funds. We aim to generate attractive investment returns by following a patient and disciplined investment approach, employing world‑class people, and driving growth and value creation in the assets we manage. We invest our own capital alongside the capital we manage for fund investors and bring debt and equity investment opportunities to others through our capital markets business.
Our business offers a broad range of investment management services to our fund investors and provides capital markets services to our firm, our portfolio companies and third parties. Throughout our history, we have consistently been a leader in the private equity industry, having completed more than 260 private equity investments in portfolio companies with a total transaction value in excess of $515 billion. We have grown our firm by expanding our geographical presence and building businesses in areas, such as credit, special situations, hedge funds, collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), capital markets, infrastructure, energy and real estate. Our balance sheet has provided a significant source of capital in the growth and expansion of our business, and has allowed us to further align our interests with those of our fund investors. These efforts build on our core principles and industry expertise, allowing us to leverage the intellectual capital and synergies in our businesses, and to capitalize on a broader range of the opportunities we source. Additionally, we have increased our focus on meeting the needs of our existing fund investors and in developing relationships with new investors in our funds.
We conduct our business with offices throughout the world, providing us with a pre‑eminent global platform for sourcing transactions, raising capital and carrying out capital markets activities. Our growth has been driven by value that we have created through our operationally focused investment approach, the expansion of our existing businesses, our entry into new lines of business, innovation in the products that we offer investors in our funds, an increased focus on providing tailored solutions to our clients and the integration of capital markets distribution activities.
As a global investment firm, we earn management, monitoring, transaction, incentive fees and carried interest for providing investment management, monitoring and other services to our funds, vehicles, CLOs, managed accounts and portfolio companies, and we generate transaction‑specific income from capital markets transactions. We earn additional investment income from investing our own capital alongside that of our fund investors, from other assets on our balance sheet and from the carried interest we receive from our funds and certain of our other investment vehicles. A carried interest entitles the sponsor of a fund to a specified percentage of investment gains that are generated on third‑party capital that is invested.
Our investment teams have deep industry knowledge and are supported by a substantial and diversified capital base, an integrated global investment platform, the expertise of operating consultants and senior advisors and a worldwide network of business relationships that provide a significant source of investment opportunities, specialized knowledge during due diligence and substantial resources for creating and realizing value for stakeholders. These teams invest capital, a substantial portion of which is of a long duration and not subject to redemption. With over 75% of our fee paying assets under management not subject to redemption for at least 8 years from inception, we have significant flexibility to grow investments and select exit opportunities. We believe that these aspects of our business will help us continue to expand and grow our business and deliver strong investment performance in a variety of economic and financial conditions.
Our Firm
With offices around the world, we have established ourselves as a leading global investment firm. We have multilingual and multicultural investment teams with local market knowledge and significant business, investment, and operational experience in the countries in which we invest. We believe that our global capabilities have helped us to raise capital, capture a greater number of investment opportunities, and assist our portfolio companies in their increasing reliance on global markets and sourcing, while enabling us to diversify our operations.
Though our operations span multiple continents and asset classes, our investment professionals are supported by an integrated infrastructure and operate under a common set of principles and business practices that are monitored by a variety of committees. The firm operates with a single culture that rewards investment discipline, creativity, determination, and patience and the sharing of information, resources, expertise, and best practices across offices and asset classes. When appropriate, we staff transactions across multiple offices and businesses in order to take advantage of the industry‑ specific expertise of our investment professionals, and we hold regular meetings in which investment professionals throughout our offices share their

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knowledge and experiences. We believe that the ability to draw on the local cultural fluency of our investment professionals while maintaining a centralized and integrated global infrastructure distinguishes us from other investment firms and has been a substantial contributing factor to our ability to raise funds, invest internationally and expand our businesses.
Since our inception, one of our fundamental philosophies has been to align the interests of the firm and our principals with the interests of our fund investors, portfolio companies and other stakeholders. We achieve this by putting our own capital behind our ideas. As of December 31, 2015, we and our employees and other personnel have approximately $12.3 billion invested in or committed to our own funds and portfolio companies, including $8.9 billion funded through our balance sheet, $1.4 billion of additional commitments from our balance sheet to investment funds, $1.0 billion in personal investments and $1.0 billion of additional commitments from personal investments.
Our Segments
 
Private Markets
 
Through our Private Markets segment, we manage and sponsor a group of private equity funds and co-investment vehicles that invest capital for long-term appreciation, either through controlling ownership of a company or strategic minority positions. We also manage and sponsor a group of funds and co-investment vehicles that invest capital in real assets, such as infrastructure, energy and real estate. These funds, vehicles and accounts are managed by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., an SEC registered investment adviser. As of December 31, 2015, the segment had $66.0 billion of AUM and FPAUM of $45.3 billion, consisting of $34.9 billion in private equity and $10.4 billion in real assets (including infrastructure, energy and real estate) and other strategies. Prior to 2010, FPAUM in the Private Markets segment consisted entirely of private equity funds.
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
For the years 2006 through 2008, assets under management are presented pro forma for the KPE Transaction, and therefore, exclude the net asset value of KPE and its former commitments to our investment funds. AUM as of and after December 31, 2014 has been adjusted to include capital commitments for which we are eligible to receive fees or carried interest upon deployment of capital. This item increased our AUM by approximately $3.1 billion as of December 31, 2014 but is excluded from AUM for all prior years presented.

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The table below presents information as of December 31, 2015 relating to our current private equity funds and other investment vehicles for which we have the ability to earn carried interest. This data does not reflect acquisitions or disposals of investments, changes in investment values or distributions occurring after December 31, 2015.

 
Investment Period (1)
 
Amount ($ in millions)
 
Commencement Date
End Date
 
Commitment (2)
Uncalled
Commitments
Percentage
Committed by
General
Partner
Invested
Realized
Remaining
Cost (3)
Remaining
Fair Value
Private Markets
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Private Equity Funds
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

European Fund IV
12/2014
12/2020
 
$
3,468.0

$
3,307.1

5.7%
$
160.9

$

$
160.9

$
185.7

Asian Fund II
4/2013
4/2019
 
5,825.0

3,979.3

1.3%
2,599.7

753.9

1,845.8

3,163.6

North America Fund XI
9/2012
9/2018
 
8,718.4

3,704.0

2.9%
5,932.1

1,733.8

4,635.4

6,983.8

China Growth Fund
11/2010
11/2016
 
1,010.0

307.6

1.0%
702.4

283.4

544.4

713.4

E2 Investors (Annex Fund)
8/2009
11/2013
 
195.8


4.9%
195.8

195.7

18.1

10.3

European Fund III
3/2008
3/2014
 
6,121.8

812.1

4.6%
5,309.7

4,447.2

3,224.2

4,240.2

Asian Fund
7/2007
4/2013
 
3,983.3

129.5

2.5%
3,853.8

5,397.4

1,918.7

2,534.0

2006 Fund
9/2006
9/2012
 
17,642.2

525.6

2.1%
17,116.6

18,411.5

7,703.3

13,028.5

European Fund II
11/2005
10/2008
 
5,750.8


2.1%
5,750.8

6,611.1

825.0

2,003.2

Millennium Fund
12/2002
12/2008
 
6,000.0


2.5%
6,000.0

12,517.4

714.0

1,521.1

European Fund
12/1999
12/2005
 
3,085.4


3.2%
3,085.4

8,748.0


17.1

Total Private Equity Funds
 
 
 
61,800.7

12,765.2

 
50,707.2

59,099.4

21,589.8

34,400.9

Co-Investment Vehicles
Various
Various
 
5,774.0

2,709.6

Various
3,137.4

2,511.0

2,118.0

2,865.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Private Equity
 
 
 
67,574.7

15,474.8

 
53,844.6

61,610.4

23,707.8

37,266.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real Assets
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

Energy Income and Growth Fund
9/2013
9/2018
 
1,974.2

1,142.6

12.8%
831.6

143.9

757.1

544.3

Natural Resources Fund
Various
Various
 
887.4

2.9

Various
884.5

96.6

809.9

200.1

Global Energy Opportunities
Various
Various
 
1,026.4

808.7

Various
252.7

55.0

144.8

124.7

Global Infrastructure Investors
9/2011
10/2014
 
1,039.9

100.9

4.8%
967.0

216.4

847.8

972.7

Global Infrastructure Investors II
10/2014
10/2020
 
3,028.3

2,685.7

4.1%
346.5

8.9

338.9

354.0

Infrastructure Co-Investments
Various
Various
 
1,125.0


Various
1,125.0

377.9

1,124.4

1,520.1

Real Estate Partners Americas
5/2013
12/2016
 
1,229.1

598.2

16.3%
777.5

314.5

630.5

740.7

Real Estate Partners Europe
9/2015
(4)
 
591.3

591.3

10.9%




Real Assets
 
 
 
10,901.6

5,930.3

 
5,184.8

1,213.2

4,653.4

4,456.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unallocated Commitments
 
 
 
1,361.2

1,361.2

Various




 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Private Markets Total
 
 
 
$
79,837.5

$
22,766.3

 
$
59,029.4

$
62,823.6

$
28,361.2

$
41,723.3

 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
The commencement date represents the date on which the general partner of the applicable fund commenced investment of the fund’s capital or the date of the first closing. The end date represents the earlier of (i) the date on which the general partner of the applicable fund was or will be required by the fund’s governing agreement to cease making investments on behalf of the fund, unless extended by a vote of the fund investors or (ii) the date on which the last investment was made.
(2)
The commitment represents the aggregate capital commitments to the fund, including capital commitments by third-party fund investors and the general partner. Foreign currency commitments have been converted into U.S. dollars based on (i) the foreign exchange rate at the date of purchase for each investment and (ii) the exchange rate that prevailed on December 31, 2015, in the case of uncalled commitments.

(3)
The remaining cost represents the initial investment of the general partner and limited partners, with the limited partners’ investment reduced for any return of capital and realized gains from which the general partner did not receive a carried interest.

(4)
Four years from final close.



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Performance
We take a long‑term approach to Private Markets investing and measure the success of our investments over a period of years rather than months. Given the duration of these investments, the firm focuses on realized multiples of invested capital and IRRs when deploying capital in these transactions. We have more than doubled the value of capital that we have invested in our Private Markets investment funds, turning $71.0 billion of capital into $147.4 billion of value from our inception in 1976 to December 31, 2015. Over this same period, the value of capital that we have invested in our Private Markets investment funds and that has been realized and partially realized has grown from $51.1 billion to $126.5 billion.

Amount Invested and Total Value for
Private Markets Investment Funds
As of December 31, 2015

From our inception in 1976 through December 31, 2015, our investment funds with at least 36 months of investment activity generated a cumulative gross IRR of 25.6%, compared to the 11.7% and 8.7% gross IRR achieved by the S&P 500 Index and MSCI World Index, respectively, over the same period, despite the cyclical and sometimes challenging environments in which we have operated. The S&P 500 Index and MSCI World Index are unmanaged indices and such returns assume reinvestment of distributions and do not reflect any fees or expenses. Our past performance, however, may not be representative of performance in any given period. For example, as of March 31, 2009, the date of the lowest aggregate valuation of our private equity funds during the most recent downturn, the investments in certain of our private equity funds at the time were marked down to 67% of original cost. For additional information regarding impact of market conditions on the value and performance of our investments, see “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business-Difficult market conditions can adversely affect our business in many ways, including by reducing the value or performance of the investments that we manage or by reducing the ability of our funds to raise or deploy capital, each of which could negatively impact our net income and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.” and “-Risks Related to the Assets We Manage-The historical returns attributable to our funds, including those presented in this report, should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds or of our future results or of any returns on our common units.”
The tables below present information as of December 31, 2015 relating to the historical performance of certain of our Private Markets investment vehicles since inception, which we believe illustrates the benefits of our investment approach. The information presented under Total Investments includes all of the investments made by the specified investment vehicle, while the information presented under Realized/Partially Realized Investments includes only those investments that have been disposed of or have otherwise generated disposition proceeds or current income including dividends that has been distributed

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by the relevant fund. This data does not reflect additional capital raised since December 31, 2015 or acquisitions or disposals of investments, changes in investment values or distributions occurring after that date. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.
                
 
Amount
 
Fair Value of Investments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Private Markets Investment Funds
Commitment
Invested (5)
 
Realized (5)
Unrealized
 
Total Value
 
Gross
IRR (5)
Net IRR (5)
 
Multiple of Invested
Capital (5)
($ in millions)
 
 
Total Investments
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 

Legacy Funds (1)
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 

1976 Fund
$
31.4

$
31.4

 
$
537.2

$

 
$
537.2

 
39.5
 %
35.5
 %
 
17.1

1980 Fund
356.8

356.8

 
1,827.8


 
1,827.8

 
29.0
 %
25.8
 %
 
5.1

1982 Fund
327.6

327.6

 
1,290.7


 
1,290.7

 
48.1
 %
39.2
 %
 
3.9

1984 Fund
1,000.0

1,000.0

 
5,963.5


 
5,963.5

 
34.5
 %
28.9
 %
 
6.0

1986 Fund
671.8

671.8

 
9,080.7


 
9,080.7

 
34.4
 %
28.9
 %
 
13.5

1987 Fund
6,129.6

6,129.6

 
14,949.2


 
14,949.2

 
12.1
 %
8.9
 %
 
2.4

1993 Fund
1,945.7

1,945.7

 
4,143.3


 
4,143.3

 
23.6
 %
16.8
 %
 
2.1

1996 Fund
6,011.6

6,011.6

 
12,476.9


 
12,476.9

 
18.0
 %
13.3
 %
 
2.1

Subtotal - Legacy Funds
16,474.5

16,474.5

 
50,269.3


 
50,269.3

 
26.1
 %
19.9
 %
 
3.1

Included Funds
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 

European Fund (1999) (2)
3,085.4

3,085.4

 
8,748.0

17.1

 
8,765.1

 
26.9
 %
20.2
 %
 
2.8

Millennium Fund (2002)
6,000.0

6,000.0

 
12,517.4

1,521.1

 
14,038.5

 
22.2
 %
16.3
 %
 
2.3

European Fund II (2005) (2)
5,750.8

5,750.8

 
6,611.1

2,003.2

 
8,614.3

 
6.4
 %
4.7
 %
 
1.5

2006 Fund (2006)
17,642.2

17,116.6

 
18,411.5

13,028.5

 
31,440.0

 
11.6
 %
8.9
 %
 
1.8

Asian Fund (2007)
3,983.3

3,853.8

 
5,397.4

2,534.0

 
7,931.4

 
18.7
 %
13.5
 %
 
2.1

European Fund III (2008) (2)
6,121.8

5,309.7

 
4,447.2

4,240.2

 
8,687.4

 
15.2
 %
9.6
 %
 
1.6

E2 Investors (Annex Fund) (2009) (2)
195.8

195.8

 
195.7

10.3

 
206.0

 
1.5
 %
1.1
 %
 
1.1

China Growth Fund (2010)
1,010.0

702.4

 
283.4

713.4

 
996.8

 
15.1
 %
8.0
 %
 
1.4

Natural Resources Fund (2010)
887.4

884.5

 
96.6

200.1

 
296.7

 
(45.8
)%
(48.5
)%
 
0.3

Global Infrastructure Investors (2011) (2)
1,039.9

967.0

 
216.4

972.7

 
1,189.1

 
9.1
 %
7.6
 %
 
1.2

North America Fund XI (2012)
8,718.4

5,932.1

 
1,733.8

6,983.8

 
8,717.6

 
26.4
 %
19.5
 %
 
1.5

Asian Fund II (2013) (3)
5,825.0

2,599.7

 
753.9

3,163.6

 
3,917.5

 
N/A

N/A

 
N/A

Real Estate Partners Americas (2013) (3)
1,229.1

777.5

 
314.5

740.7

 
1,055.2

 
N/A

N/A

 
N/A

Energy Income and Growth Fund (2013) (3)
1,974.2

831.6

 
143.9

544.3

 
688.2

 
N/A

N/A

 
N/A

Global Infrastructure Investors II (2014) (2) (3)
3,028.3

346.5

 
8.9

354.0

 
362.9

 
N/A

N/A

 
N/A

European Fund IV (2015) (2) (3)
3,468.0

160.9

 

185.7

 
185.7

 
N/A

N/A

 
N/A

Real Estate Partners Europe (2015) (2) (3)
591.3


 


 

 
N/A

N/A

 
N/A

Subtotal - Included Funds
70,550.9

54,514.3

 
59,879.7

37,212.7

 
97,092.4

 
15.4
 %
11.1
 %
 
1.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
All Funds
$
87,025.4

$
70,988.8

 
$
110,149.0

$
37,212.7

 
$
147,361.7

 
25.6
 %
18.9
 %
 
2.1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Amount
 
Fair Value of Investments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Private Markets Investment Funds
Commitment
Invested (5)
 
Realized (5)
Unrealized
 
Total Value
 
Gross
IRR (5)
Net IRR (5)
 
Multiple of Invested
Capital (5)
($ in millions)
 
 
Realized/Partially Realized Investments (4)
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 

Legacy Funds (1)
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 

1976 Fund
$
31.4

$
31.4

 
$
537.2

$

 
$
537.2

 
39.5
 %
35.5
 %
 
17.1

1980 Fund
356.8

356.8

 
1,827.8


 
1,827.8

 
29.0
 %
25.8
 %
 
5.1

1982 Fund
327.6

327.6

 
1,290.7


 
1,290.7

 
48.1
 %
39.2
 %
 
3.9

1984 Fund
1,000.0

1,000.0

 
5,963.5


 
5,963.5

 
34.5
 %
28.9
 %
 
6.0

1986 Fund
671.8

671.8

 
9,080.7


 
9,080.7

 
34.4
 %
28.9
 %
 
13.5

1987 Fund
6,129.6

6,129.6

 
14,949.2


 
14,949.2

 
12.1
 %
8.9
 %
 
2.4

1993 Fund
1,945.7

1,945.7

 
4,143.3


 
4,143.3

 
23.6
 %
16.8
 %
 
2.1

1996 Fund
6,011.6

6,011.6

 
12,476.9


 
12,476.9

 
18.0
 %
13.3
 %
 
2.1

Subtotal - Legacy Funds
16,474.5

16,474.5

 
50,269.3


 
50,269.3

 
26.1
 %
19.9
 %
 
3.1

Included Funds
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 

European Fund (1999) (2)
3,085.4

3,085.4

 
8,748.0

17.1

 
8,765.1

 
26.9
 %
20.2
 %
 
2.8

Millennium Fund (2002)
6,000.0

5,599.4

 
12,517.4

1,402.2

 
13,919.6

 
25.0
 %
19.4
 %
 
2.5

European Fund II (2005) (2)
5,750.8

5,245.4

 
6,611.1

2,001.6

 
8,612.7

 
7.8
 %
6.7
 %
 
1.6

2006 Fund (2006)
17,642.2

10,867.0

 
18,411.5

7,208.4

 
25,619.9

 
17.1
 %
14.8
 %
 
2.4

Asian Fund (2007)
3,983.3

2,953.6

 
5,397.4

1,791.2

 
7,188.6

 
22.3
 %
19.1
 %
 
2.4

European Fund III (2008) (2)
6,121.8

2,694.3

 
4,447.2

1,324.9

 
5,772.1

 
22.0
 %
18.6
 %
 
2.1

E2 Investors (Annex Fund) (2009) (2)
195.8

94.8

 
195.7


 
195.7

 
19.8
 %
19.8
 %
 
2.1

China Growth Fund (2010)
1,010.0

371.3

 
283.4

377.0

 
660.4

 
20.3
 %
18.1
 %
 
1.8

Natural Resources Fund (2010)
887.4

884.6

 
96.6

200.1

 
296.7

 
(45.8
)%
(48.5
)%
 
0.3

Global Infrastructure Investors (2011) (2)
1,039.9

765.1

 
216.3

711.5

 
927.8

 
7.8
 %
7.8
 %
 
1.2

North America Fund XI (2012)
8,718.4

2,074.9

 
1,733.9

2,551.7

 
4,285.6

 
49.6
 %
48.7
 %
 
2.1

Asian Fund II (2013) (4)
5,825.0


 


 

 


 

Real Estate Partners Americas (2013) (4)
1,229.1


 


 

 


 

Energy Income and Growth Fund (2013) (4)
1,974.2


 


 

 


 

Global Infrastructure Investors II (2014) (2) (4)
3,028.3


 


 

 


 

European Fund IV (2015) (2) (4)
3,468.0


 


 

 


 

Real Estate Partners Europe (2015) (2) (4)
591.3


 


 

 


 

Subtotal - Included Funds
70,550.9

34,635.8

 
58,658.5

17,585.7

 
76,244.2

 
19.4
 %
16.1
 %
 
2.2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
All Realized/Partially Realized Investments
$
87,025.4

$
51,110.3

 
$
108,927.8

$
17,585.7

 
$
126,513.5

 
25.8
 %
20.8
 %
 
2.5

(1)These funds were not contributed to KKR as part of the KPE Transaction.
(2)
The capital commitments of the European Fund, European Fund II, European Fund III, E2 Investors (Annex Fund), European Fund IV, Global Infrastructure Investors, Global Infrastructure Investors II and Real Estate Partners Europe include euro-denominated commitments of €196.5 million, €2,597.5 million, €2,882.8 million, €55.5 million, €1,626.1 million, €30.0 million, €243.8 million and €275.6 million, respectively. Such amounts have been converted into U.S. dollars based on (i) the foreign exchange rate at the date of purchase for each investment and (ii) the exchange rate prevailing on December 31, 2015 in the case of unfunded commitments.
(3)
The gross IRR, net IRR and multiple of invested capital are calculated for our investment funds that have invested for at least 36 months prior to December 31, 2015. None of the Asian Fund II, Real Estate Partners Americas, Energy Income and Growth Fund, Global Infrastructure Investors II, European Fund IV or Real Estate Partners Europe have invested for at least 36 months as of December 31, 2015. We therefore have not calculated gross IRRs, net IRRs and multiples of invested capital with respect to those funds.
(4)
An investment is considered partially realized when it has been disposed of or has otherwise generated disposition proceeds or current income that has been distributed by the relevant fund. In periods prior to the three months ended September 30, 2015, realized proceeds excluded current income such as dividends and interest. None of the Asian Fund II, Real Estate Partners Americas, Energy Income and Growth Fund, Global Infrastructure Investors II, European Fund IV or Real Estate Partners Europe have any investments that are considered partially realized. We therefore have not calculated gross IRRs, net IRRs and multiples of invested capital with respect to the investments of those funds.
(5)
IRRs measure the aggregate annual compounded returns generated by a fund’s investments over a holding period. Net IRRs presented under Total Investments are calculated after giving effect to the allocation of realized and unrealized carried interest and the payment of any applicable management fees. Net IRRs presented under Realized/Partially Realized Investments are calculated after giving effect to the allocation of realized and unrealized carried interest, but before payment of any applicable management fees as management fees are applied to funds, not investments. Gross IRRs are calculated before giving effect to the allocation of carried interest and the payment of any applicable management fees.
         The multiples of invested capital measure the aggregate value generated by a fund’s investments in absolute terms. Each multiple of invested capital is calculated by adding together the total realized and unrealized values of a fund’s investments and dividing by the total amount of capital invested by the fund. Such amounts do not give effect to the allocation of any realized and unrealized returns on a fund’s investments to the fund’s general partner pursuant to a carried interest or the payment of any applicable management fees.

KKR Private Markets funds may utilize third party financing facilities to provide liquidity to such funds. In such event IRRs are calculated from the time capital contributions are due from fund investors to the time fund investors receive a related distribution from the fund, and the use of such financing

10

Table of Contents

facilities generally decreases the amount of invested capital that would otherwise be used to calculate IRRs and multiples of invested capital, which tends to increase IRRs and multiples when fair value grows over time and decrease IRRs and multiples when fair value decreases over time.  KKR Private Markets funds also generally provide in certain circumstances, which vary depending on the relevant fund documents, for a portion of capital returned to investors to be restored to unused commitments as recycled capital. For KKR's Private Markets funds that have a preferred return, we take into account recycled capital in the calculation of IRRs and multiples of invested capital because the calculation of the preferred return includes the effect of recycled capital. For KKR's Private Markets funds that do not have a preferred return, we do not take recycled capital into account in the calculation of IRRs and multiples of invested capital. The inclusion of recycled capital generally causes invested and realized amounts to be higher and IRRs and multiples of invested capital to be lower than had recycled capital not been included.  The inclusion of recycled capital would reduce the composite net IRR of all Included Funds by 0.1% and the composite net IRR of all Legacy Funds by 0.5%, and would reduce the composite multiple of invested capital of Included Funds by less than 0.1 and the composite multiple of invested capital of Legacy Funds by 0.4. 

For more information, see “Risk Factors-Risks Related to the Assets We Manage-The historical returns attributable to our funds, including those presented in this report, should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds or of our future results or of any returns on our common units.”
Private Equity
We are a world leader in private equity, having raised 19 funds with approximately $78.3 billion of capital commitments through December 31, 2015. We invest in industry‑leading franchises and attract world‑class management teams. Our investment approach leverages our capital base, sourcing advantage, global network and industry knowledge. It also leverages a sizeable team of operating consultants, who work exclusively with our investment professionals and portfolio company management teams and otherwise at our direction, as well as senior advisors, many of whom are former chief executive officers and leaders of the business community.
Portfolio
The following chart presents information concerning the amount of capital invested by private equity funds by geography through December 31, 2015. We believe that this data illustrates the benefits of our business approach and our ability to source and invest in deals in multiple geographies.
Our current private equity portfolio consists of over 108 companies with approximately $200 billion of annual revenues. These companies are headquartered in 21 countries and operate in 19 general industries which take advantage of our broad and deep industry and operating expertise. Many of these companies are leading franchises with global operations, strong management teams and attractive growth prospects, which we believe will provide benefits through a broad range of business conditions.

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Investment Approach
Our approach to making private equity investments focuses on achieving multiples of invested capital and attractive risk‑adjusted IRRs by selecting high‑ quality investments that may be made at attractive prices, applying rigorous standards of due diligence when making investment decisions, implementing strategic and operational changes that drive growth and value creation in acquired businesses, carefully monitoring investments, and making informed decisions when developing investment exit strategies.
We believe that we have achieved a leading position in the private equity industry by applying a disciplined investment approach and by building strong partnerships with highly motivated management teams who put their own capital at risk. When making private equity investments, we seek out strong business franchises, attractive growth prospects, leading market positions, and the ability to generate attractive returns. In our private equity funds, we do not effect transactions that are “hostile”, meaning a target company’s board of directors makes an unfavorable recommendation with respect to the transaction or publicly opposes the consummation of the transaction.
Sourcing and Selecting Investments
We have access to significant opportunities for making private equity investments as a result of our sizeable capital base, global platform, and relationships with leading executives from major companies, commercial and investment banks, and other investment and advisory institutions. Members of our global network contact us with new investment opportunities, including a substantial number of exclusive investment opportunities and opportunities that are made available to only a limited number of other firms. We also proactively pursue business development strategies that are designed to generate deals internally based on the depth of our industry knowledge and our reputation as a leading financial sponsor.
To enhance our ability to identify and consummate private equity investments, we have organized our investment professionals in industry‑specific teams. Our industry teams work closely with our operating consultants and other advisors to identify businesses that can be grown and improved. These teams conduct their own primary research, develop a list of industry themes and trends, identify companies and assets in need of operational improvement, and seek out businesses and assets that they believe will benefit from our involvement. They possess a detailed understanding of the economic drivers, opportunities for value creation, and strategies that can be designed and implemented to improve companies across the industries in which we invest.
Due Diligence and the Investment Decision
When an investment team determines that an investment proposal is worth consideration, the proposal is formally presented to the applicable regional investment committee and the due diligence process commences if appropriate. The objective of the due diligence process is to identify attractive investment opportunities based on the facts and circumstances surrounding an investment and to prepare a framework that may be used from the date of an acquisition to drive operational improvement and value creation. When conducting due diligence, investment teams evaluate a number of important business, financial, tax, accounting, environmental, social, governance, legal and regulatory issues in order to determine whether an investment is suitable. While the due diligence process differs depending on the type of investment we make, generally, in connection with the private equity due diligence process, investment professionals spend significant amounts of time meeting with a company’s management and operating personnel, visiting plants and facilities, and where appropriate, speaking with other stakeholders interested in and impacted by the investment in order to understand the opportunities and risks associated with the proposed investment. Our investment professionals may also use the services of outside accountants, consultants, lawyers, investment banks, and industry experts as appropriate to assist them in this process. Investment committees monitor all due diligence practices, and the applicable investment committee must approve an investment before it may be made.
Building Successful and Competitive Businesses
Portfolio management committees are responsible for working with our investment professionals from the date on which a private equity investment is made until the time it is exited in order to ensure that strategic and operational objectives are accomplished and that the performance of the investment is closely monitored. When investing in a private equity portfolio company, we partner with management teams to execute on our investment thesis, and we rigorously track performance through regular monitoring of detailed operational and financial metrics as well as appropriate environmental, social and governance issues. We have developed a global network of experienced managers and operating executives who assist the private equity portfolio companies in making operational improvements and achieving growth. We augment these resources with operational guidance from operating consultants at KKR Capstone, senior advisors, and investment teams, and with “100‑Day Plans” that focus the firm’s efforts and drive our strategies. We seek to emphasize efficient capital management, top‑line growth, R&D spending, geographical expansion, cost optimization, and investment for the long‑term.

12

Table of Contents

Realizing Investments
We have developed substantial expertise for realizing private equity investments. From our inception through December 31, 2015, the firm has generated approximately $110.2 billion of cash proceeds from the sale of our private equity portfolio companies in initial public offerings and secondary offerings, dividends, and sales to strategic buyers. When exiting private equity investments, our objective is to structure the exit in a manner that optimizes returns for fund investors and, in the case of publicly traded companies, minimizes the impact that the exit has on the trading price of the company’s securities. We believe that our ability to successfully realize investments is attributable in part to the strength and discipline of our portfolio management committees and capital markets business, as well as the firm’s longstanding relationships with corporate buyers and members of the investment banking and investing communities.
Private Equity Fund Structures
The private equity funds that we sponsor and manage have finite lives and investment periods. Each fund is organized as one or more partnerships, and each partnership is controlled by a general partner. Private equity fund investors are limited partners who agree to contribute a specified amount of capital to the fund from time to time for use in qualifying investments during the investment period, which generally lasts up to six years depending on how quickly capital is deployed. The investment period for certain funds may be terminated upon supermajority vote (based on capital commitment) of the fund’s limited partners or by the fund’s advisory committee. The term of our private equity funds generally last for 10 to 12 years and may last up to 15 years from the date of the fund’s first or last investment, subject to a limited number of extensions with the consent of the limited partners or the applicable advisory committee. Given the length of the investment periods and terms of our private equity funds and the limited conditions under which such periods can be terminated and commitments may be withdrawn, the AUM of our private equity funds provide a long‑term stable capital base.
Each private equity fund’s general partner is generally entitled to a carried interest that allocates to it 20% of the net profits realized by the limited partners from the fund’s investments. Our newer private equity funds, the North America Fund XI, Asian Fund II and European Fund IV have a performance hurdle which requires that we return 7%, compounded annually, to limited partners in the fund prior to receiving our 20% share of net profits realized by limited partners. Such performance hurdles are subject to a catch‑up allocation to the general partner after the hurdle has been reached. Our earlier private equity funds do not include a performance hurdle. The timing of receipt of carried interest in respect of investments of our carry funds is dictated by the terms of the partnership agreements that govern such funds, and is distributed to the general partner of a private equity fund only after all of the following are met: (i) a realization event has occurred (e.g., sale of a portfolio company, dividend, etc.); (ii) the vehicle has achieved positive overall investment returns since its inception, in excess of performance hurdles where applicable; and (iii) with respect to investments with a fair value below cost, cost has been returned to fund investors in an amount sufficient to reduce remaining cost to the investments’ fair value. For a fund that has a fair value above cost, overall, but has one or more investments where fair value is below cost, the shortfall between cost and fair value for such investments is referred to as a “netting hole.” See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity-Sources of Liquidity” for a discussion of netting holes. Net realized profit or loss is not netted between or among funds except for the Annex Fund as discussed below under “-Other Private Equity Investment Vehicles-E2 Investors (Annex Fund)”. In addition, the agreements governing KKR’s private equity funds generally include a “clawback” or, in certain instances, a “net loss sharing” provision that, if triggered, may give rise to a contingent obligation that may require the general partner to return or contribute amounts to the fund for distribution to fund investors at the end of the life of the fund. Our newer private equity funds do not have a net loss sharing provision. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Policies-Clawback Provision”, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition-Critical Accounting Policies-Net Loss Sharing Provision” and “Risk Factors-The “clawback” or “net loss sharing” provisions in our governing agreements may give rise to a contingent obligation that may require us to return or contribute amounts to our funds and fund investors.”
We enter into management agreements with our private equity funds pursuant to which we receive management fees in exchange for providing the funds with management and other services. Gross management fees for our private equity funds generally range from 1% to 2% of committed capital during the fund’s investment period and is generally 0.75% to 1.25% of invested capital after the expiration of the fund’s investment period with subsequent reductions over time, which causes the fees to be reduced as investments are liquidated. These management fees are paid by private equity fund investors, who generally contribute capital to the fund in order to allow the fund to pay the fees to us. Our private equity funds generally require that management fees be returned to fund investors before a carried interest may be paid.
We also enter into monitoring agreements with our portfolio companies pursuant to which we receive periodic monitoring fees in exchange for providing them with management, consulting, and other services, and we typically receive transaction fees for providing portfolio companies with financial, advisory and other services in connection with specific transactions. Monitoring fees may provide for a termination payment following an initial public offering or change of control. In some cases,

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we may be entitled to other fees that are paid by an investment target upon closing a transaction or when a potential investment is not consummated. Our private equity fund agreements typically require us to share 80% to 100% of any monitoring, transaction and other fees that are allocable to a fund (after reduction for expenses incurred allocable to a fund from unconsummated transactions) with fund investors.
In addition, the agreements governing our private equity funds enable investors in those funds to reduce their capital commitments available for further investments, on an investor‑by‑investor basis, in the event certain “key persons” (for example, both of Messrs. Kravis and Roberts, and, in the case of certain geographically or product focused funds, one or more of the investment professionals focused on such funds) cease to be actively involved in the management of the fund. While these provisions do not allow investors in our funds to withdraw capital that has been invested or cause a fund to terminate, the occurrence of a “key man” event could cause disruption in our business, reduce the amount of capital that we have available for future investments, and make it more challenging to raise additional capital in the future.
Because private equity fund investors typically are unwilling to invest their capital in a fund unless the fund’s manager also invests its own capital in the fund’s investments, our private equity fund documents generally require the general partners of the funds to make minimum capital commitments to the funds. The amounts of these commitments, which are negotiated by fund investors, generally range from 2% to 5% of a fund’s total capital commitments at final closing, but may be greater for certain funds pursuing newer strategies. When investments are made, the general partner contributes capital to the fund based on its fund commitment percentage and acquires a capital interest in the investment that is not subject to a carried interest or management fees.
Other Private Equity Investment Vehicles
E2 Investors (Annex Fund). We established the Annex Fund in 2009 to enable fund investors in the European Fund II and the Millennium Fund to make additional investments in portfolio companies of the European Fund II, which had already been fully invested. This fund has several features that distinguish it from our other private equity funds, including: (i) it does not pay a management fee to us; (ii) its general partner is only entitled to a carried interest after netting any losses, costs, and expenses relating to European Fund II and certain Millennium Fund investments from the profits of the Annex Fund investments; and (iii) no transaction or incremental monitoring fees are charged in connection with investments in which the Annex Fund participates. The Annex Fund reached the end of its investment period in November 2013.
Other Private Equity Products. We have offered significant co‑investment opportunities to both fund investors and other third parties. We have built out our capital markets and distribution capabilities and created new investment structures and products that allow us to syndicate a portion of the equity needed to finance acquisitions. These structures include co‑investment vehicles and a principal‑protected private equity product, which generally entitles the firm to receive management fees and/or a carried interest. In addition, we manage certain separately managed accounts in the form of separate investment vehicles based on terms that are separately negotiated with investors in those vehicles. We also offer multi‑strategy products, which invest in our funds, co‑investment vehicles and external funds and have launched a strategy focused on growth equity opportunities in the technology, media and telecommunications sector.
Real Assets
Energy
In 2010 we launched our first dedicated energy fund, which acquired and operated oil and natural gas properties in mature basins located primarily in the United States. In acquiring these properties, which are typically considered to be non‑core by their sellers, we sought to generate value through optimizing production , reducing operating costs, and optimizing commercial and marketing arrangements.
Since the launch of our first dedicated energy fund, we have invested in our capabilities, both with respect to our team of investment professionals and our relationships with technical partners. With these capabilities, we have expanded our energy platform to target real asset investment opportunities across the upstream and midstream segments of the oil and gas industry. As part of this effort, we have completed investments in oil and gas drilling development transactions with operating companies and have also acquired mineral and royalty interests. We invest in these energy strategies through the KKR Energy Income and Growth Fund. As of December 31, 2015, we have received $2.9 billion of capital commitments to our energy funds and $1.0 billion of capital commitments to this strategy through separately managed accounts.
Our energy business aims to deliver current returns to fund investors through distributions generated by producing and selling oil and natural gas reserves and capital appreciation. The goal is to provide investors with exposure to commodity prices

14

Table of Contents

and optionality associated with future drilling and production. We work closely with external teams of technical and operational experts to assist in the selection, evaluation and operation of investments.
Infrastructure
We manage infrastructure investments and began investing through our first dedicated infrastructure fund, KKR Global Infrastructure Investors L.P., in 2011. We believe that the global infrastructure market provides an opportunity for the firm’s private investment, operational improvement capabilities and stakeholder engagement. This strategy seeks to achieve returns including current income through the acquisition and operational improvement of assets important to the functioning of the economy. Through this strategy we have made investments in parking, alternative energy, district heating and contracted electricity generation, water and wastewater, locomotive transportation, midstream and telecommunications infrastructure. As of December 31, 2015, we had received $4.1 billion of capital commitments to our infrastructure funds and $1.1 billion of capital commitments to this strategy through separately managed accounts and co‑investment vehicles.
Real Estate
The firm developed a dedicated real estate strategy beginning in 2011 using our own seed capital. Since launching our first dedicated real estate fund, KKR Real Estate Partners Americas, in 2013, we have expanded our real estate strategy to pursue real estate investments in Western Europe and real estate credit. In addition, we have the flexibility to invest in real estate transactions across the capital structure through various vehicles, including our private equity and alternative credit funds. We have also established investment platforms with strategic partners to invest in commercial real estate in Germany and the United States. Our real estate platform targets real estate opportunities, including direct investments in real property, debt, special situations transactions and businesses with significant real estate holdings that can benefit from KKR’s operational expertise. We seek to partner with real estate owners, lenders, operators, and developers to provide flexible capital to respond to transaction specific needs, including the outright purchase or financing of existing assets or companies and the funding of future development or acquisition opportunities. Through this strategy, we have made real estate investments in residential and commercial assets. As of December 31, 2015, we have received $1.8 billion of capital commitments through our real estate funds.
Real Asset Investment Process
Our energy, infrastructure and real estate funds have a similar investment process as that described under “-Private Equity.” Investment teams for a particular real asset strategy formally present investments to the applicable strategy oriented investment committee, which monitors all due diligence practices and must approve an investment before it may be made. Most of our real asset strategies also have a portfolio management committee that works with our investment professionals from the date on which an investment is made until the time it is exited in order to ensure that strategic and operational objectives are accomplished and that the performance of the investment is closely monitored. In addition to leveraging the resources of the firm, our energy and real estate investment teams partner with technical experts and operators to manage our real asset investments.
Real Asset Fund Structures
Our energy, infrastructure and real estate funds generally have investment periods of up to 6 years and generally have a fund term of up to 13 years. Management fees for such funds range from 0.75% to 1.5% on commitments, invested capital or net asset value during the investment period and on invested capital or net asset value for investments thereafter, subject to certain adjustments. These funds generally have performance hurdles of 8% to 10% subject to a catch‑up allocation to the general partner after the hurdle has been reached. Thereafter the general partners of such funds generally share in 10% to 20% of net profits realized by limited partners. 
Public Markets
 
We operate and report our combined credit and hedge funds businesses through the Public Markets segment. Our credit business advises funds, CLOs, separately managed accounts, and investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act, including a business development company or BDC, undertakings for collective investment in transferable securities or UCITS, and alternative investments funds or AIFs, which invest capital in (i) leveraged credit strategies, such as leveraged loans, high yield bonds and opportunistic credit, and (ii) alternative credit strategies such as mezzanine investments, direct lending investments, special situations investments and long/short credit investment strategies. The funds, accounts, registered investment companies and CLOs in our leveraged credit and alternative credit strategies are managed by KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC, which is an SEC‑registered investment adviser, KKR Credit Advisors (Ireland), regulated by the Central

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Bank of Ireland, and KKR Credit Advisors (UK), regulated by the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, or FCA. KKR Credit Advisors (Ireland) and KKR Credit Advisors (UK) (formerly known collectively as Avoca Capital) were acquired by KKR on February 19, 2014. Our Public Markets segment also includes our hedge funds business that offers a variety of investment strategies including customized hedge fund portfolios and hedge fund‑of‑fund solutions. The funds and accounts in our hedge fund business are managed by Prisma Capital Partners LP (KKR Prisma or Prisma), an SEC‑registered investment adviser. Through our Public Markets segment, we also have developed strategic partnerships by acquiring minority stakes in other hedge fund managers.
We intend to continue to grow the Public Markets business by leveraging our global investment platform, experienced investment professionals and the ability to adapt our investment strategies to different market conditions to capitalize on investment opportunities that may arise at various levels of the capital structure and across market cycles.
As of December 31, 2015, this segment had $53.5 billion of AUM, comprised of $17.4 billion of assets managed in our leveraged credit strategies, $15.5 billion of assets managed in our alternative credit strategies, $11.0 billion of assets managed in our hedge fund solutions strategies, $8.7 billion of assets managed in our strategic partnerships and $0.9 billion of assets managed in other strategies. Our alternative credit investments include $2.0 billion of assets managed in our mezzanine strategy, $6.5 billion of assets managed in our direct lending strategy, $6.6 billion of assets managed in our special situations strategies and $0.4 billion of assets managed in our long/short credit strategy. The following chart presents the growth in the AUM of our Public Markets segment from the commencement of its operations in August 2004 through December 31, 2015.

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(1)
For years 2006 through 2008, assets under management are presented pro forma for the KPE Transaction and, therefore, exclude the net asset value of KPE and its former commitments to our investment funds. Assets under management of KKR Prisma and Avoca are included in the years on and after the completion of the respective acquisitions.
(2)
AUM as of and after December 31, 2014 has been adjusted to include (i) KKR's pro-rata portion of AUM managed by other asset managers in which KKR holds a minority stake and (ii) capital commitments for which we are eligible to receive fees or carried interest upon deployment of capital. These two items increased our AUM by approximately $5.4 billion as of December 31, 2014 but are excluded from AUM for all prior years presented.
Credit
Performance
We generally review our performance in our credit business by investment strategy. Our leveraged credit strategies principally invest in leveraged loans and high yield bonds, or a combination of both. In certain cases these strategies have meaningful track records and may be compared to widely‑known indices. The following table presents information regarding larger leveraged credit strategies managed by KKR from inception to December 31, 2015. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.


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Leveraged Credit Strategies: Inception-to-Date Annualized Gross Performance vs. Benchmark by Strategy
($ in millions)
 
Inception Date
 
Gross
Returns
 
Net
Returns
 
Benchmark (1)
 
Benchmark
Gross
Returns
Bank Loans Plus High Yield (2)
 
Jul 2008
 
8.07
%
 
7.41
%
 
65% S&P/ LSTA, 35% BoAML HY Master II Index (3)
 
5.72
%
Opportunistic Credit (4)
 
May 2008
 
12.18
%
 
10.21
%
 
BoAML HY Master II Index (4)
 
6.96
%
Bank Loans (2)
 
Apr 2011
 
4.38
%
 
3.76
%
 
S&P/ LSTA Loan Index (5)
 
3.07
%
High Yield (2)
 
Apr 2011
 
5.50
%
 
4.92
%
 
BoAML HY Master II Index (6)
 
4.00
%
Bank Loans Conservative
 
Apr 2011
 
4.24
%
 
3.62
%
 
S&P/ LSTA BB-B Loan Index (7)
 
3.30
%
European Leveraged Loans (8)
 
Sep 2009
 
5.88
%
 
5.36
%
 
CS Inst West European Leveraged Loan Index (9)
 
4.92
%
 
(1)
The Benchmarks referred to herein include the S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan Index (the “S&P/LSTA Loan Index”), the Bank of America Merrill Lynch High Yield Master II Index (the “BoAML HY Master II Index”), the S&P European Leveraged Loan Index (the “ELLI”) and Credit Suisse Institutional Western European Leveraged Loan Index (the “CS Inst European Leveraged Loan Index”). The S&P/LSTA Loan Index is an index that comprises all loans that meet the inclusion criteria and that have marks from the LSTA/LPC mark-to-market service. The inclusion criteria consist of the following: (i) syndicated term loan instruments consisting of term loans (both amortizing and institutional), acquisition loans (after they are drawn down) and bridge loans; (ii) secured; (iii) U.S. dollar denominated; (iv) minimum term of one year at inception; and (v) minimum initial spread of LIBOR plus 1.25%. The BoAML HY Master II Index is a market value weighted index of below investment grade U.S. dollar denominated corporate bonds publicly issued in the U.S. domestic market. “Yankee” bonds (debt of foreign issuers issued in the U.S. domestic market) are included in the BoAML HY Master II Index provided that the issuer is domiciled in a country having investment grade foreign currency long-term debt rating. Qualifying bonds must have maturities of one year or more, a fixed coupon schedule and minimum outstanding of US$100 million. In addition, issuers having a credit rating lower than BBB3, but not in default, are also included. The ELLI is based upon Euro denominated facilities. The index reflects the market-weighted performance of institutional leveraged loan portfolios investing in European credits. All the index components are loans syndicated to European loan investors. The ELLI series uses real-time market weightings, spreads and interest payments. The Index was calculated monthly from January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2004; then weekly until May 2, 2013, and is currently calculated daily. The CS Inst European Leveraged Loan Index contains only institutional loan facilities priced above 90, excluding TL and TLa facilities and loans rated CC, C or are in default. It is designed to more closely reflect the investment criteria of institutional investors. While the returns of these strategies reflect the reinvestment of income and dividends, none of the indices presented in the chart above reflect such reinvestment, which has the effect of increasing the reported relative performance of these strategies as compared to the indices. Furthermore, these indices are not subject to management fees, incentive allocations or expenses. It is not possible to invest directly in unmanaged indices.
(2)
The AUM of the Bank Loans Plus High Yield strategy is also included in the AUM of the High Yield strategy and the AUM of the Bank Loans strategy.
(3)
Performance is based on a blended composite of Bank Loans Plus High Yield strategy accounts. The Benchmark used for purposes of comparison for the Bank Loans Plus High Yield strategy is based on 65% S&P/LSTA Loan Index and 35% BoAML HY Master II Index.
(4)
The Opportunistic Credit strategy invests in high yield securities and corporate loans with no preset allocation. The Benchmark used for purposes of comparison for the Opportunistic Credit strategy presented herein is based on the BoAML HY Master II Index. Funds within this strategy may utilize third party financing facilities to provide liquidity to such funds. In cases where financing facilities are used, the amounts drawn on the facility are deducted from the assets of the fund in the calculation of net asset value, which tends to increase returns when net asset value grows over time and decrease returns when net asset value decreases over time.
(5)
Performance is based on a composite of portfolios that primarily invest in leveraged loans. The Benchmark used for purposes of comparison for the Bank Loans strategy is based on the S&P/LSTA Loan Index.
(6)
 Performance is based on a composite of portfolios that primarily invest in high yield securities. The Benchmark used for purposes of comparison for the High Yield strategy is based on the BoAML HY Master II Index.
(7)
 Performance is based on a composite of portfolios that primarily invest in leveraged loans rated B-/Baa3 or higher. The Benchmark used for purposes of comparison for the Bank Loans strategy is based on the S&P/LSTA BB/B Loan Index.
(8)
 The AUM amounts reflected have been converted to U.S. dollars based on the exchange rate prevailing on December 31, 2015. The returns presented are calculated based on local currency.
(9) Performance is based on a composite of portfolios that primarily invest in higher quality leveraged loans. The Benchmark used for purposes of comparison for the European Senior Loans strategy is based on the CS Inst West European Leveraged Loan Index.

Our alternative credit strategies primarily invest in more illiquid instruments through private investment funds. The following table presents information regarding our Public Markets alternative credit funds where investors are subject to capital commitments from inception to December 31, 2015. Some of our alternative credit funds have begun investing more recently and therefore have not yet developed meaningful track records, and thus their performance is not included below. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.


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Alternative Credit Strategies: Fund Performance
 
 
 
 
Amount
 
Fair Value of Investments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Public Markets 
Investment Funds
 
Inception Date
 
Commitment
 
Invested*
 
Realized*
 
Unrealized
 
Total Value
 
Gross
IRR**
 
Net IRR**
 
Multiple
 of Invested
Capital***
($ in Millions)
 
 
Special Situations Fund
 
Dec-12
 
$
2,257.6

 
$
2,129.6

 
$
257.6

 
$
2,205.6

 
$
2,463.2

 
9.6
%
 
7.0
%
 
1.2

Special Situations Fund II
 
Dec-14
 
2,675.5

 
592.1

 

 
452.4

 
452.4

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

Mezzanine Partners
 
Mar-10
 
1,022.8

 
872.2

 
541.0

 
634.3

 
1,175.3

 
13.8
%
 
8.4
%
 
1.3

Lending Partners
 
Dec-11
 
460.2

 
369.7

 
181.5

 
303.3

 
484.8

 
11.4
%
 
9.4
%
 
1.3

Lending Partners II
 
Jun-14
 
1,335.9

 
446.3

 
26.4

 
475.7

 
502.1

 
10.9
%
 
8.2
%
 
1.1

Lending Partners Europe
 
Mar-15
 
780.1

 
16.5

 

 
24.0

 
24.0

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

Revolving Credit Partners
 
May-15
 
510.0

 

 

 
(2.8
)
 
(2.8
)
 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

Private Credit Opportunities Partners II
 
Dec-15
 
350.0

 

 

 

 

 
N/A

 
N/A

 
N/A

All Funds
 
 
 
$
9,392.1

 
$
4,426.4

 
$
1,006.5

 
$
4,092.5

 
$
5,099.0

 
 

 
 

 
1.2

*       Recycled capital is excluded from the amounts invested and realized. 

**     KKR alternative credit funds may utilize third party financing facilities to provide liquidity to such funds, and in such event IRRs are calculated from the time capital contributions are due from fund investors to the time fund investors receive a related distribution from the fund. In cases where financing facilities are used, their use generally decreases the amount of invested capital that would otherwise be used to calculate IRRs, which tends to increase IRRs when fair value grows over time and decrease IRRs when fair value decreases over time. IRRs measure the aggregate annual compounded returns generated by a fund’s investments over a holding period and are calculated taking into account recycled capital. Net IRRs presented are calculated after giving effect to the allocation of realized and unrealized carried interest and the payment of any applicable management fees.  Gross IRRs are calculated before giving effect to the allocation of carried interest and the payment of any applicable management fees.
 
***   The multiples of invested capital measure the aggregate value generated by a fund’s investments in absolute terms. Each multiple of invested capital is calculated by adding together the total realized and unrealized values of a fund’s investments and dividing by the total amount of capital invested by the fund. In cases where financing facilities are used, their use generally decreases the amount of invested capital that would otherwise be used to calculate multiples of invested capital, which tends to increase multiples when fair value grows over time and decrease multiples when fair value decreases over time. . Such amounts do not give effect to the allocation of any realized and unrealized returns on a fund’s investments to the fund’s general partner pursuant to a carried interest or the payment of any applicable management fees and are calculated without taking into account recycled capital.


Such past performance may not be representative of performance in any given period. For additional information regarding impact of market conditions on the value and performance of our investments, see “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business-Difficult market conditions can adversely affect our business in many ways, including by reducing the value or performance of the investments that we manage or by reducing the ability of our funds to raise or deploy capital, each of which could negatively impact our net income and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.” and “-Risks Related to the Assets We Manage-The historical returns attributable to our funds, including those presented in this report, should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds or of our future results or of any returns on our common units.”
Investment Approach
Our approach to making investments focuses on creating investment portfolios that seek to generate attractive risk‑adjusted returns by selecting investments that may be made at attractive prices, subjecting investments to regular monitoring and oversight, and, for more liquid investments, making buy and sell decisions based on price targets and relative value parameters. The firm employs both “top‑down” and “bottom‑up” analyses when making investments. Our top‑down analysis involves, as appropriate, a macro analysis of relative asset valuations, long‑term industry trends, business cycles, regulatory trends, interest rate expectations, credit fundamentals and technical factors to target specific industry sectors and asset classes in which to invest. From a bottom‑up perspective, our investment decision is predicated on an investment thesis that is developed using our proprietary resources and knowledge and due diligence.
Sourcing and Selecting Investments
We source investment opportunities through a variety of channels, including internal deal generation strategies and the firm’s global network of contacts at major companies, corporate executives, commercial and investment banks, financial intermediaries, other private equity sponsors and other investment and advisory institutions. We are also provided with opportunities to invest in certain strategies, where appropriate, in the securities of KKR’s private equity portfolio companies, though there are limitations across the platform on the maximum size of such KKR‑affiliated investments.

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Due Diligence and the Investment Decision
Once a potential investment has been identified, our investment professionals screen the opportunity and make a preliminary determination concerning whether we should proceed with further diligence. When evaluating the suitability of an investment for our funds, we typically employ a relative value framework and subject the investment to due diligence. This review considers many factors including, as appropriate, expected returns, capital structure, credit ratings, historical and projected financial data, the issuer’s competitive position, the quality and track record of the issuer’s management team, margin stability, and industry and company trends. Investment professionals use the services of outside advisors and industry experts as appropriate to assist them in the due diligence process and, when relevant and permitted, leverage the knowledge and experience of our Private Markets investment professionals. Strategy‑specific investment committees monitor all due diligence practices.
Monitoring Investments
We monitor our portfolios of investments using, as applicable, daily, quarterly and annual analyses. Daily analyses include morning market meetings, industry and company pricing runs, industry and company reports and discussions with the firm’s Private Markets investment professionals on an as‑needed basis. Quarterly analyses include the preparation of quarterly operating results, reconciliations of actual results to projections and updates to financial models (baseline and stress cases). Annual analyses involve conducting internal audits, and testing compliance with monitoring and documentation requirements.
Credit Strategies
Our credit strategies business pursues investments in debt securities ranging from liquid securities such as leveraged loans and high‑yield bonds to alternative credit including longer‑duration strategies such as mezzanine, special situations and direct lending and revolving credit. These investments may be made across a range of vehicles including funds, single‑ or cross‑strategy separately managed accounts, and registered investment companies. These managed accounts enable us to tailor an investment program to meet the specific risk, return and investment objective of investors in our funds.
Leveraged Credit. Our leveraged credit strategies are principally directed at investing in leveraged loans, high‑yield bonds or a combination of both. Our opportunistic credit strategy seeks to deploy capital across investment themes that take advantage of credit market dislocations, spanning asset types and liquidity profiles. These leveraged credit strategies are pursued primarily through separately managed accounts and registered investment companies, with a smaller amount of capital residing in funds. We are entitled to receive a fee or a combination of a fee and an incentive allocation for managing these vehicles.
Structured Credit Vehicles. We manage structured credit vehicles in the form of collateralized loan obligation transactions, or CLOs. CLOs are typically structured as bankruptcy‑remote, special purpose investment vehicles which acquire, monitor and, to varying degrees, manage a pool of credit assets. The CLOs serve as long term financing for credit investments and as a way to minimize refinancing risk, minimize maturity risk and secure a fixed cost of funds over an underlying market interest rate. We may receive a fee for managing certain CLOs.
Alternative Credit. Our alternative credit strategies leverage the knowledge and relationships developed in the leveraged credit business. These strategies include private credit strategies such as mezzanine and distressed investing and special situations strategies. As with our leveraged credit strategy, these are pursued through a combination of separately managed accounts, a BDC and funds. For managing these accounts and funds, we are entitled to receive either fees or a combination of fees and carried interest.
Direct Lending. We seek to make investments in proprietarily sourced primarily senior debt financings for middle‑market companies through our direct lending strategy. We closed our first dedicated direct lending fund, KKR Lending Partners L.P. in December 2012 and had AUM of $6.5 billion in this strategy as of December 31, 2015.
Mezzanine. We seek to make mezzanine investments in directly sourced third‑party mezzanine and mezzanine-like transactions through this strategy. These investments often consist of mezzanine debt, which generates a current yield, coupled with marginal equity exposure with additional upside potential. We closed our first dedicated mezzanine fund, KKR Mezzanine Partners I L.P. in August 2011 and had AUM of $2.0 billion in this strategy as of December 31, 2015.
Special Situations. We seek to make opportunistic investments largely in distressed companies through our special situations investment strategy. These investments include secondary market distressed investments (including post‑ restructuring equity), control‑oriented opportunities, rescue financing (debt or equity investments made to

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address covenant, maturity or liquidity issues), debtor‑in‑possession or exit financing, structured principal investments, and other event‑driven investments in debt or equity. We closed our first dedicated special situations fund, KKR Special Situations Fund L.P., in December 2013 and had AUM of $6.6 billion in this strategy as of December 31, 2015.
Long/short credit. Our long/short credit strategy invests across capital structures with a focus primarily on corporate credit opportunities and had AUM of $0.4 billion in this strategy as of December 31, 2015.
Products for Individual Investors
KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC serves as the registered investment adviser to an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act (or, in the case of the BDC we manage, as its sub‑adviser), which are subject to the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder. The management fees we receive from these registered investment companies are generally paid on a regular basis (typically monthly) and proportionately increase or decrease based on the net asset value or gross assets of the investment company. The management fees we are paid for managing these investment companies will generally be subject to contractual rights that require their board of directors to provide prior notice (or, in the case of the BDC we manage, the investment adviser) in order to terminate our investment management services.
Hedge Funds
Overview
Our hedge fund business is comprised of customized hedge fund solutions and minority interests in other public markets managers and funds. We established our hedge fund business in October 2012 with the acquisition of Prisma Capital Partners LP through which we provide customized hedge fund portfolio and hedge fund‑of‑fund solutions. We expect to grow this business with the acquisition of majority and minority interests or stakes in third party hedge fund management companies or by seeding strategies with strategic hedge fund partners.
KKR Prisma
KKR Prisma constructs and manages customized hedge fund portfolios and hedge fund‑of‑funds. It seeks to deliver superior performance by utilizing portfolio construction techniques and an integrated, quantitative approach to risk management. KKR Prisma takes a specialist approach by seeking leading niche hedge fund managers in various alternative investment strategies. Various strategies are offered to investors, including moderate and low‑volatility, equity, credit and opportunistic, in both commingled and separate account portfolios. For the period beginning in June 2004 through December 31, 2015, our hedge fund-of-funds low volatility strategy, which consists of the majority of our hedge fund-of-funds AUM and FPAUM, generated a gross annualized return of 7.0%. As of December 31, 2015, our hedge fund-of-funds accounted for $11.0 billion of AUM.
Strategic Partnerships
Through our Public Markets segment, we also have developed strategic partnerships by acquiring minority stakes in other hedge fund managers. In this business we have a 24.9% interest in Marshall Wace LLP, a leading global liquid alternatives manager, a 24.9% interest in Nephila Capital Ltd., or Nephila, an investment manager focused on investing in natural catastrophe and weather risk, a 24.9% interest in BlackGold Capital Management L.P., or BlackGold, a credit‑oriented investment manager focused on investing in energy and hard asset investments. We have also seeded Acion Partners Limited, a Hong Kong based investment manager that manages Asian event driven investments.

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Public Markets Vehicle Structures
The table below presents information as of December 31, 2015 relating to our Public Markets vehicles:
($ in millions)
 
AUM
 
FPAUM
 
Typical 
Management
Fee Rate
 
Incentive Fee /
Carried
Interest
 
Preferred
Return
 
Duration
of Capital
Leveraged Credit:
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leveraged Credit SMAs/Funds
 
$
7,129

 
$
6,647

 
0.50%-1.50%
 
Various (1)
 
Various (1)
 
Subject to redemptions
CLO’s
 
9,021

 
9,021

 
0.50%
 
Various (1)
 
Various (1)
 
10-14 Years (2)
Total Leveraged Credit
 
16,150

 
15,668

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alternative Credit Vehicles (3)
 
13,463

 
7,340

 
0.75%-1.50% (4)
 
10.00-20.00%
 
8.00-12.00%
 
8-15 Years (2)
Hedge Fund Solutions
 
11,028

 
10,530

 
0.50%-1.50%
 
Various (1)
 
Various (1)
 
Subject to redemptions
Strategic Partnerships (6)
 
8,737

 
8,737

 
0.75%-2.00%
 
Various
 
Various
 
Subject to redemptions
Corporate Capital Trust (5)
 
4,138

 
4,138

 
1.00%
 
10.00%
 
7.00%
 
7 years (5)
Total
 
$
53,516

 
$
46,413

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)
Certain funds and CLOs are subject to a performance fee in which the manager or general partner of the funds share in up to 20% (in our hedge fund solutions business, up to 10%) of the net profits earned by investors in excess of performance hurdles (generally tied to a benchmark or index) and subject to a provision requiring the funds and vehicles to regain prior losses before any performance fee is earned.
(2)
Term for duration of capital is since inception. Inception dates for CLOs were between 2004 and 2015 and for separately managed accounts and funds investing in alternative credit strategies from 2009 through 2015.
(3)
AUM and FPAUM include all assets invested by vehicles that principally invest in alternative credit strategies, respectively, and consequently may include a certain amount of assets, currently less than $1.0 billion, invested in other strategies.
(4)
Lower fees on uninvested capital in certain vehicles.
(5)
Corporate Capital Trust is a BDC sub-advised by KKR. By December 31, 2018, the capital in the Corporate Capital Trust vehicle may have an indefinite duration. This vehicle invests in both leveraged credit and alternative credit strategies.
(6)
Includes KKR's pro rata portion of AUM and FPAUM managed by other asset managers in which KKR holds a minority interest.

Capital Markets
 
Our Capital Markets segment is comprised primarily of our global capital markets business. Our capital markets business supports our firm, our portfolio companies and third-party clients by developing and implementing both traditional and non-traditional capital solutions for investments or companies seeking financing. These services include arranging debt and equity financing for transactions, placing and underwriting securities offerings and providing other types of capital markets services. When we underwrite an offering of securities or a loan on a firm commitment basis, we commit to buy and sell an issue of securities or indebtedness and generate revenue by purchasing the securities or indebtedness at a discount or for a fee. When we act in an agency capacity, we generate revenue for arranging financing or placing securities or debt with capital markets investors. We may also provide issuers with capital markets advice on security selection, access to markets, marketing considerations, securities pricing, and other aspects of capital markets transactions in exchange for a fee. KKR Capital Markets LLC is an SEC-registered broker-dealer and a FINRA member, and we are also registered or authorized to carry out certain broker-dealer activities in various countries in North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. Our third party capital markets activities are generally carried out through Merchant Capital Solutions LLC, a joint venture with one other unaffiliated partner, and non-bank financial companies, or NBFCs, in India.

Client & Partner Group
We have a Client & Partner Group that is responsible for raising capital for us globally across all products, expanding our client relationships across asset classes and across types of fund investors, developing products to meet our clients’ needs, and servicing existing fund investors and products. We also provide fundraising services to fund managers in whom we have invested through our stakes business. As of December 31, 2015, we had 80 executives and professionals dedicated to our Client & Partner Group.

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As of December 31, 2015, we had 895 investors in funds across all our strategies, which reflects the addition of over 100 investors during the year. On average, a fund investor is invested in approximately 1.7 of our products as of December 31, 2015. The following charts detail our investor base by type and geography as of December 31, 2015.
_________________________
(1)
Based on the AUM of our Private Markets investment funds, Private Markets co‑investment vehicles, and Public Markets separately managed accounts and investment funds. These charts exclude (a) commitments in connection with Private and Public Markets vehicles for which we are entitled to management fees or carried interest upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, which had not been met as of December 31, 2015 and (b) assets managed by other asset managers with which KKR has formed strategic partnerships where KKR does not hold more than a 50% ownership interest. Allocations are assigned to a type or geographic region according to subscriptions received from a limited partner.
Principal Activities
 
Through our Principal Activities segment, we manage the firm’s own assets and deploy capital to support and grow our businesses. We use our Principal Activities assets to support our investment management and capital markets businesses. Typically, the funds in our Private Markets and Public Markets businesses contractually require us, as general partner of the funds, to make sizable capital commitments from time to time. We believe our general partner commitments are indicative of the conviction we have in a given fund’s strategy, which assists us in raising new funds from limited partners. We also deploy Principal Activities assets in order to help establish a track record for fundraising purposes in new strategies. We may also use our own capital to seed investments for new funds, to bridge capital selectively for our funds’ investments or finance strategic acquisitions and partnerships, although the financial results of an acquired business or strategic partnership have been reported in our other segments.

Our Principal Activities assets also provide the required capital to fund the various commitments of our Capital Markets business when underwriting or syndicating securities, or when providing term loan commitments for transactions involving our portfolio companies and for third parties. Our Principal Activities assets also may be utilized to satisfy regulatory requirements for our Capital Markets business and risk retention requirements for our CLO business.

We also make opportunistic investments through our Principal Activities segment, which include co-investments alongside our Private Markets and Public Markets funds, as well as make Principal Activities investments that do not involve our Private Markets or Public Markets funds.

We endeavor to use our balance sheet strategically and opportunistically to generate an attractive risk-adjusted return on equity in a manner that is consistent with our fiduciary duties and in compliance with applicable laws.


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The chart below presents the holdings of our Principal Activities segment by asset class as of December 31, 2015.


Holdings by Asset Class (1)
_________________________
(1)
General partner commitments in our funds are included in the various asset classes shown above. Assets and revenues of other asset managers with which KKR has formed strategic partnerships where KKR does not hold more than 50% ownership interest are not included in our Principal Activities business but are reported in the financial results of our other segments. Private equity funds represent holdings in KKR sponsored private equity funds. Equity investments consist of opportunistic investments including co-investments alongside such KKR sponsored private equity funds. However, equity investments in other asset classes, such as real estate, special situations and energy appear in these other asset classes.
Competition
We compete with other investment managers for both fund investors and investment opportunities. The firm’s competitors consist primarily of sponsors of public and private investment funds, real estate development companies, business development companies, investment banks, commercial finance companies and operating companies acting as strategic buyers. We believe that competition for fund investors is based primarily on investment performance, investor liquidity and willingness to invest, investor perception of investment managers’ drive, focus and alignment of interest, business reputation, duration of relationships, quality of services, pricing, fund terms including fees, and the relative attractiveness of the types of investments that have been or are to be made. We believe that competition for investment opportunities is based primarily on the pricing, terms and structure of a proposed investment and certainty of execution. In addition to these traditional competitors within the global investment management industry, we also face competition from local and regional firms, financial institutions and sovereign wealth funds, in the various countries in which we invest. In certain emerging markets, local firms may have more established relationships with the companies in which we are attempting to invest. These competitors often fall into one of the aforementioned categories but in some cases may represent new types of fund investors, including high net worth individuals, family offices and state‑ sponsored entities.
There are numerous funds focused on private equity, real assets, credit and hedge fund strategies that compete for investor capital. Fund managers have also increasingly adopted investment strategies outside of their traditional focus. For example,

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funds focused on credit and equity strategies have become active in taking control positions in companies, while private equity funds have acquired minority equity or debt positions in publicly listed companies. This convergence could heighten competition for investments. Furthermore, as institutional fund investors increasingly consolidate their relationships for multiple investment products with a few investment firms, competition for capital from such institutional fund investors may become more acute.
Some of the entities that we compete with as an investment firm may have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and more personnel than us and, in the case of some asset classes, longer operating histories, more established relationships or greater experience. Several of our competitors also have raised, or may raise, significant amounts of capital and have investment objectives that are similar to the investment objectives of our funds, which may create additional competition for investment opportunities. Some of these competitors may also have lower costs of capital and access to funding sources that are not available to us, which may create competitive advantages for them. For example, master limited partnerships, or MLPs, which typically invest in oil and gas assets, may have a lower cost of capital than, and may compete with our energy funds for investment opportunities. In addition, some of these competitors may have higher risk tolerances, different risk assessments or lower return thresholds, which could allow them to consider a wider range of investments and to bid more aggressively than us for investments. Strategic buyers may also be able to achieve synergistic cost savings or revenue enhancements with respect to a targeted portfolio company, which may provide them with a competitive advantage in bidding for such investments.
We expect to compete as a capital markets business primarily with investment banks and independent broker‑dealers in the North America, Europe, Asia‑ Pacific and the Middle East. We principally focus our capital markets activities on the firm, our portfolio companies and fund investors, but we also seek to service other third parties, principally through Merchant Capital Solutions LLC. While we generally target customers with whom we have existing relationships, those customers may have similar relationships with the firm’s competitors, many of whom will have access to competing securities transactions, greater financial, technical or marketing resources or more established reputations than us. The limited operating history of our capital markets business could make it difficult for us to compete with established investment banks or broker‑dealers, participate in capital markets transactions of issuers or successfully grow the firm’s capital markets business over time.
Competition is also intense for the attraction and retention of qualified employees and consultants. Our ability to continue to compete effectively in our businesses will depend upon our ability to attract new employees and consultants and retain and motivate our existing employees and consultants.
Employees, Consultants and Advisors
As of December 31, 2015, we employed approximately 1,200 people worldwide:
Investment Professionals
370

Other Professionals
569

Support Staff
257

Total Employees(1)
1,196

 
 
(1)    Does not include consolidated consultants and other consultants who provide services to us or our funds.
Investment Professionals
Our 370 investment professionals come from diverse backgrounds in private equity, real assets, credit, hedge funds and other asset classes and include executives with operations, strategic consulting, risk management, liability management and finance experience. As a group, these professionals provide us with a strong global team for identifying attractive investment opportunities, creating value, and generating superior returns.
Other Professionals
Our 569 other professionals come from diverse backgrounds in capital markets, capital raising, client services, public affairs, finance, tax, legal, compliance, human resources, and information technology. As a group, these professionals provide us with a strong team for overseeing investments and performing capital markets activities, servicing our existing fund investors and creating relationships with new fund investors globally. Additionally, a majority of these other professionals are responsible for supporting the global infrastructure of KKR.

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KKR Capstone
We have developed an institutionalized process for creating value in investments. As part of our effort, we utilize a team of 49 operating consultants at KKR Capstone, who are not KKR employees but work exclusively with our investment professionals and portfolio company management teams or our designees. With professionals in North America, Europe and the Asia‑Pacific, KKR Capstone provides additional expertise for assessing investment opportunities and assisting managers of portfolio companies in defining strategic priorities and implementing operational changes. During the initial phases of an investment, KKR Capstone’s work seeks to implement our thesis for value creation. These operating consultants may assist portfolio companies in addressing top‑line growth, cost optimization and efficient capital allocation and in developing operating and financial metrics. Over time, this work shifts to identifying challenges and taking advantage of business opportunities that arise during the life of an investment. KKR Capstone is consolidated in KKR’s financial results for GAAP purposes, but is not a subsidiary or affiliate of KKR.
Senior Advisors
To complement the expertise of our investment professionals, we have a team of senior advisors and other advisors. While not KKR employees, they provide us with additional operational and strategic insights. The responsibilities of senior advisors include serving on the boards of our portfolio companies, helping us source and evaluate individual investment opportunities and assisting portfolio companies with operational matters. These individuals include current and former chief executive officers, chief financial officers and chairmen of major corporations and leading positions of public agencies worldwide.


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Organizational Structure

The following simplified diagram illustrates our organizational structure as of December 31, 2015, unless otherwise noted. Certain entities depicted below may be held through intervening entities not shown in the diagram.


(1)
KKR Management LLC serves as the general partner of KKR & Co. L.P., which is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of a majority of independent directors. KKR Management LLC does not hold any economic interests in KKR & Co. L.P. and is owned by senior KKR employees.
(2)
KKR Holdings is the holding vehicle through which certain of our current and former employees and other persons indirectly own their interest in KKR. KKR Group Partnership Units that are held by KKR Holdings are exchangeable for our common units on a one‑for‑one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for splits, unit distributions and reclassifications and compliance with applicable vesting and transfer restrictions. As limited partner interests, these KKR Group Partnership Units are non‑voting and do not entitle KKR Holdings to participate in the management of our business and affairs. As of December 31, 2015, KKR Holdings had a 44.1% interest in our business indirectly through its limited partner interests in the KKR Group Partnerships.
(3)
KKR Holdings holds special non‑economic voting units in our partnership that entitle it to cast, with respect to those limited matters that may be submitted to a vote of our unitholders, a number of votes equal to the number of KKR Group Partnership Units that it holds from time to time.
(4)
KKR Group Finance Co. LLC is a wholly‑owned subsidiary of KKR Management Holdings Corp. and the issuer of our $500 million aggregate principal amount of 6.375% Senior Notes due 2020 (the “2020 Senior Notes”). The 2020 Senior Notes are guaranteed by KKR & Co. L.P. and the KKR Group Partnerships.
(5)
KKR Group Finance Co. II LLC is a wholly‑owned subsidiary of KKR Management Holdings Corp. and the issuer of our $500 million aggregate principal amount of 5.500% Senior Notes due 2043 (the “2043 Senior Notes”), which were issued on February 1, 2013. The 2043 Senior Notes are guaranteed by KKR & Co. L.P. and the KKR Group Partnerships.
(6)
KKR Group Finance Co. III LLC is a wholly‑owned subsidiary of KKR Management Holdings Corp. and the issuer of our $1,000 million aggregate principal amount of 5.125% Senior Notes due 2044 (the “2044 Senior Notes”), which were issued on May 29, 2014 and on March 18, 2015. The 2044 Senior Notes are guaranteed by KKR & Co. L.P. and the KKR Group Partnerships.
(7)
Because the income of KKR Management Holdings L.P. is likely to be primarily non‑qualifying income for purposes of the qualifying income exception to the publicly traded partnership rules, we formed KKR Management Holdings Corp., which is subject to taxation as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to hold our KKR Group Partnership Units in KKR Management Holdings L.P. Accordingly, our allocable share of the taxable income of KKR Management Holdings L.P. will be subject to taxation at a corporate rate. KKR Management Holdings L.P., which is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, was formed to hold interests in our fee generating businesses and other assets that may not generate qualifying income for purposes of the qualifying income exception to the publicly traded partnership rules. KKR Fund Holdings L.P., which is also treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, was formed to hold interests in our businesses and assets that will generate qualifying income for purposes of the qualifying income exception to the publicly traded partnership rules. KKR International

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Holdings L.P. was formed generally to hold certain non‑U.S. assets that may generate non‑qualifying income under the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to publicly traded partnerships. As of February 22, 2016, KKR International Holdings L.P. holds no assets.
(8)
KKR Management Holdings L.P. is the parent company of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., the SEC‑registered investment adviser, which in turn is generally the parent company for most of KKR’s other management and capital markets subsidiaries including KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC, Prisma Capital Partners LP and KKR Capital Markets Holdings L.P., the holding company for KKR Capital Markets LLC. KKR Fund Holdings L.P. is the parent company of KKR Credit Advisors (Ireland).
(9)
40% of the carried interest earned in relation to our investment funds and carry paying co‑investment vehicles is allocated to a carry pool, from which carried interest is allocable to our employees and selected other individuals. No carried interest has been allocated with respect to co‑investments acquired from KPE in the KPE Transaction.
Regulation
Our operations are subject to regulation and supervision in a number of jurisdictions. The level of regulation and supervision to which we are subject varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and is based on the type of business activity involved. We, in conjunction with our outside advisors and counsel, seek to manage our business and operations in compliance with such regulation and supervision. The regulatory and legal requirements that apply to our activities are subject to change from time to time and may become more restrictive, which may make compliance with applicable requirements more difficult or expensive or otherwise restrict our ability to conduct our business activities in the manner in which they are now conducted. Changes in applicable regulatory and legal requirements, including changes in their enforcement, could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition and results of operations. As a matter of public policy, the regulatory bodies that regulate our business activities are generally responsible for safeguarding the integrity of the securities and financial markets and protecting fund investors who participate in those markets rather than protecting the interests of our unitholders.
United States
Regulation as an Investment Adviser
We conduct our advisory business through our investment adviser subsidiaries, including Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. and its wholly‑owned subsidiaries KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC and Prisma Capital Partners LP, each of which is registered as an investment adviser with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act. The investment advisers are subject to the anti‑fraud provisions of the Investment Advisers Act and to fiduciary duties derived from these provisions which apply to our relationships with our advisory clients globally, including funds that we manage. These provisions and duties impose restrictions and obligations on us with respect to our dealings with our fund investors and our investments, including for example restrictions on agency cross and principal transactions. Our registered investment advisers are subject to periodic SEC examinations and other requirements under the Investment Advisers Act and related regulations primarily intended to benefit advisory clients. These additional requirements relate, among other things, to maintaining an effective and comprehensive compliance program, recordkeeping and reporting requirements and disclosure requirements. The Investment Advisers Act generally grants the SEC broad administrative powers, including the power to limit or restrict an investment adviser from conducting advisory activities in the event it fails to comply with federal securities laws. Additional sanctions that may be imposed for failure to comply with applicable requirements include the prohibition of individuals from associating with an investment adviser, the revocation of registrations and other censures and fines.
KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC is also subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act as an investment adviser to a registered investment company. The KKR Income Opportunities Fund is a closed‑end management company registered under the Investment Company Act. The closed‑end management company and KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC are subject to the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder, which among other things regulate the relationship between a registered investment company and its investment adviser and prohibit or restrict principal transactions and joint transactions.
Regulation as a Broker‑Dealer
KKR Capital Markets LLC, one of our subsidiaries, is registered as a broker‑ dealer with the SEC under the Exchange Act and in all 50 U.S. States and U.S. territories and is a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA. MCS Capital Markets LLC is registered as a broker‑ dealer with the SEC under the Exchange Act and in 35 U.S. States. As registered broker‑dealers, KKR Capital Markets LLC and MCS Capital Markets LLC are subject to periodic SEC and FINRA examinations and reviews. A broker‑dealer is subject to legal requirements covering all aspects of its securities business, including sales and trading practices, public and private securities offerings, use and safekeeping of customers’ funds and securities, capital structure, record‑ keeping and retention and the conduct and qualifications of directors, officers, employees and other associated persons. These requirements include the SEC’s “uniform net capital rule,” which specifies the minimum

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level of net capital that a broker‑dealer must maintain, requires a significant part of the broker‑ dealer’s assets to be kept in relatively liquid form, imposes certain requirements that may have the effect of prohibiting a broker‑dealer from distributing or withdrawing its capital and subjects any distributions or withdrawals of capital by a broker‑dealer to notice requirements. These and other requirements also include rules that limit a broker‑dealer’s ratio of subordinated debt to equity in its regulatory capital composition, constrain a broker‑dealer’s ability to expand its business under certain circumstances and impose additional requirements when the broker‑dealer participates in securities offerings of affiliated entities. Violations of these requirements may result in censures, fines, the issuance of cease‑and‑desist orders, revocation of licenses or registrations, the suspension or expulsion from the securities industry of the broker‑dealer or its officers or employees or other similar consequences by regulatory bodies.
United Kingdom
We have several subsidiaries which are authorized and regulated by the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, or FCA, under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, or FSMA, and are authorized in the United Kingdom with permission to engage in certain specified activities. FSMA and related rules govern most aspects of investment business, including sales, research and trading practices, provision of investment advice, corporate finance, use and safekeeping of client funds and securities, regulatory capital, record keeping, margin practices and procedures, approval standards for individuals, anti‑money laundering, periodic reporting and settlement procedures. The FCA is responsible for administering these requirements and our compliance with the FSMA and related rules. Violations of these requirements may result in censures, fines, imposition of additional requirements, injunctions, restitution orders, revocation or modification of permissions or registrations, the suspension or expulsion from certain “controlled functions” within the financial services industry of officers or employees performing such functions or other similar consequences.
KKR Capital Markets Limited has permission to engage in a number of regulated activities regulated under FSMA, including dealing as principal or agent and arranging deals in relation to certain types of specified investments and arranging the safeguarding and administration of assets. KKR Capital Markets Limited also benefits from a passport under the single market directives to offer services cross border into all countries in the European Economic Area and Gibraltar. Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. Partners LLP has permission to engage in a number of regulated activities including advising on and arranging deals relating to corporate finance business in relation to certain types of specified investments. KKR Asset Management Partners LLP has permission to engage in a number of regulated activities including and advising on and arranging deals in relation to certain types of specified investments. KKR Credit Advisors (UK) has permission to advise, arrange, manage and deal as agent in certain types of investments. Prisma Capital Management International LLP is authorized to carry on any investment services and activities on a regular basis except reception and transmission of orders in relation to one or more financial instruments or investment advice.
Other Jurisdictions
Certain other subsidiaries or funds that we advise are registered with, have been licensed by or have obtained authorizations to operate in their respective jurisdictions outside of the United States. These registrations, licenses or authorizations relate to providing investment advice, broker‑dealer activities, marketing of securities and other regulated activities. Failure to comply with the laws and regulations governing these subsidiaries and funds that have been registered, licensed or authorized could expose us to liability and/or damage our reputation.
KKR Credit Advisors (Ireland) and KKR Alternative Investment Management are regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland. KKR Credit Advisors (Ireland) is authorized to carry out a number of regulated activities including receiving and transmitting orders, portfolio management and providing investment advice. KKR Alternative Investment Management is an authorized EU alternative investment manager permitted to conduct portfolio management, risk management and certain administrative activities.
KKR Capital Markets LLC and MCS Capital Markets LLC, respectively, are also registered as an international dealer under the Securities Act (Ontario). This registration permits us to trade in non‑Canadian equity and debt securities with certain types of investors located in Ontario, Canada.
KKR Capital Markets Japan Limited, a joint stock corporation, is registered as a Type I and Type II Financial Instruments Business Operator (broker dealer) under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan, and a money lender under the Money Lending Business Act of Japan.

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KKR MENA Limited, a Dubai International Financial Centre company, is licensed to arrange credit or deals in investments, advise on financial products or credit, and manage assets, and is regulated by the Dubai Financial Services Authority.
KKR Saudi Limited is licensed by the Capital Market Authority in Saudi Arabia and is authorized for the activity of arranging in the securities business.
KKR Australia Pty Limited and KKR Australia Investment Management Pty Limited are Australian financial services licensed and are authorized to provide advice on and deal in financial products for wholesale clients, and are regulated by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.
KKR Capital Markets Asia Limited is licensed by the Securities and Futures Commission in Hong Kong to carry on dealing in securities and advising on securities regulated activities.
KKR Singapore Pte. Ltd. holds a capital markets services license to conduct fund management for accredited and/or institutional investors only, and is regulated by Monetary Authority of Singapore.
KKR Holdings Mauritius, Ltd. and KKR Account Adviser (Mauritius), Ltd. are unrestricted investment advisers authorized to manage portfolios of securities and give advice on securities transactions, and are regulated by the Financial Services Commission, Mauritius.
KKR Account Adviser (Mauritius), Ltd. is registered as a Foreign Institutional Investor, or FII, with the Securities and Exchange Board of India ("SEBI"), under the SEBI (Foreign Institutional Investors) Regulations, 1995 pursuant to which it can make investments in listed and unlisted securities of Indian issuers.
KKR Mauritius Direct Investments I, Ltd. is registered as a Foreign Portfolio Investor, or FPI, with SEBI under the SEBI (Foreign Portfolio Investor) Regulations, 2014 pursuant to which it can make investments in listed and unlisted securities of Indian issuers, and is incorporated as an investment holding company in Mauritius regulated by the Financial Services Commission, Mauritius.
KKR India Financial Services Private Limited is registered with the Reserve Bank of India as a non‑deposit taking non‑banking financial company and is authorized to undertake lending and financing activities.
KKR Capital Markets India Private Limited is licensed by the SEBI as a merchant bank that is authorized to execute capital market mandates, underwrite issues, offer investment advisory and other consultancy/advisory services.
Silverview Investments Pte. Ltd., Silverview Portfolio Investments Pte. Ltd. (earlier known as KKR Asia II Portfolio Investors Pte. Ltd.), Moneyline Portfolio Investments Limited are registered with SEBI either as an FII sub‑account or an FPI pursuant to which they can make investments in listed and unlisted securities of Indian issuers.
KKR India Asset Finance Private Limited (formerly known as Motichand Finance Private Limited) is registered with the Reserve Bank of India as a non‑ deposit taking non‑banking financial company and is authorized to undertake lending and financing activities.
Daena Venture Capital Investments, Ltd. is incorporated as an investment holding company in Mauritius regulated by the Financial Services Commission, Mauritius and was registered with SEBI as a foreign venture capital investor, or FVCI; however the FVCI certificated of registration has been surrendered with effect from December 18, 2015.
KKR Asia II Venture Investments Pte Ltd. is registered with SEBI as a foreign venture capital investor, or FVCI, under the SEBI (Foreign Venture Capital Investors) Regulations, 2000 pursuant to which it can make certain investments in securities of Indian issuers and is incorporated as an investment holding company in Singapore.
From time to time, one or more of our investment funds or their related investment vehicles may be regulated as a mutual fund by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority, regulated as an investment limited partnership by the Central Bank of Ireland, listed on the Irish Stock Exchange, notified with the Financial Services Agency of Japan for sale pursuant to certain private placement exemptions and/or for investment pursuant to certain exemption, registered with the Financial Supervisory Service of the Republic of Korea, licensed by or granted in principal approval from SEBI, subject to the regulatory supervision of the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier of Luxembourg, notified with the Netherlands Authority for Financial Markets for sale pursuant to certain private placement exemptions, or registered under the Investment Company Act.

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There are a number of legislative and regulatory initiatives in the United States and in Europe that could significantly affect our business. Please see “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business-Extensive regulation of our businesses affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. The possibility of increased regulatory focus or legislative or regulatory changes could result in additional burdens on our business.”
Website and Availability of SEC Filings
Our website address is www.kkr.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not a part of this Form 10‑K. We make available free of charge on our website or provide a link on our website to our Annual Report on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q and Current Reports on Form 8‑K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. To access these filings, go to the “KKR & Co. L.P.” portion of our “Investor Center” page on our website, then click on “SEC Filings”. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s public reference room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20549. Please call the SEC at 1‑800‑SEC‑0330 for further information on the public reference room. In addition these reports and the other documents we file with the SEC are available at a website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov.
From time to time, we may use our website as a channel of distribution of material information. Financial and other material information regarding our company is routinely posted on and accessible at www.kkr.com. In addition, you may automatically receive e‑mail alerts and other information about our company by enrolling your e‑mail address by visiting the “E‑ mail Alerts” section at under the “KKR & Co. L.P.” section of the “Investor Center” heading at www.kkr.com.

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ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
 
Investing in our securities involves risk. Persons investing in our securities should carefully consider the risks described below and the other information contained in this report and other filings that we make from time to time with the SEC, including our consolidated and combined financial statements and accompanying notes. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could also be adversely affected by additional factors that apply to all companies generally, as well as other risks that are not currently known to us or that we currently view to be immaterial. In any such case, the trading price of our securities could decline and you may lose all or part of your original investment. While we attempt to mitigate known risks to the extent we believe to be practicable and reasonable, we can provide no assurance, and we make no representation, that our mitigation efforts will be successful.
Risks Related to Our Business
Difficult market conditions can adversely affect our business in many ways, including by reducing the value or performance of the investments that we manage or by reducing the ability of our funds to raise or deploy capital, each of which could negatively impact our net income and cash flow and adversely affect our financial prospects and condition.
Our business and the businesses of the companies in which we invest are materially affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions or events throughout the world, such as interest rates, availability of credit, inflation rates, economic uncertainty, changes in laws (including laws relating to taxation), trade barriers, commodity prices, currency exchange rates and controls and national and international political circumstances (including wars, terrorist acts or security operations). For example, the unprecedented turmoil in the global financial markets during 2008 and 2009 provoked significant volatility of securities prices, contraction in the availability of credit and the failure of a number of companies, including leading financing institutions, and had a material adverse effect on our businesses and the businesses of the companies in which we invest. A more recent example of volatility has occurred beginning in the late summer of 2015 and is continuing.
Low levels of growth and high levels of government debt in major markets including the United States and Europe persists, and Europe continues to experience high unemployment and ongoing austerity. Concerns regarding sovereign defaults and the possibility that one or more countries might leave the European Union have resurfaced. The pace of China’s fixed asset investment growth has been slowing, which may pose a risk to the economic stability of China and its major trading partners. China’s slowing also has the potential to hinder the demand for and prices of many important global commodities and consequently reduce capital spending in industries dependent on commodity prices. Although lower commodity prices, including the falling price of oil, are expected to benefit the economies of commodity importing countries, certain of our investments focused on the development, exploration and production of oil and natural gas properties, as well as the sale of products or services used in the natural resources sector, have and will continue to suffer from such a decline. In addition, the Federal Reserve may continue to raise interest rates in 2016, thus raising the cost of financing and possibly slowing economic growth in the United States. Furthermore, higher interest rates in the United States could also reduce the relative attractiveness of other global markets, thereby applying pressure to foreign asset values and currencies.
Such market and economic conditions and events are outside our control and may affect the level and volatility of securities prices and the liquidity and the value of our investments. In addition, we may not be able to or may choose not to manage our exposure to these conditions and/or events. For example, as of March 31, 2009, the date of the lowest aggregate valuation of our private equity funds during the 2008 and 2009 financial market turmoil, the investments in the private equity funds contributed to us in the KPE Transaction were marked down to 67% of original cost, and values across all geographies declined. For example, as of March 31, 2009, the European Fund II, European Fund III, 2006 Fund and Asian Fund had multiples of invested capital of 0.5x, 0.6x, 0.7x and 0.8x, respectively. If not reversed, recent declines in the equity, commodity and debt in the markets are also expected to cause write down in our investments and the investments of our funds. Our profitability may also be adversely affected by our fixed costs and the possibility that we would be unable to scale back other costs within a time frame sufficient to match any decreases in net income relating to changes in market and economic conditions.
Unfavorable market conditions may reduce opportunities for our funds to make, exit and realize value from their investments. For example, when financing is not available, it is difficult for potential buyers to raise sufficient capital to purchase assets in our funds’ portfolios. Consequently, we may earn lower than expected returns on investments, which could cause us to realize diminished or no carried interest. In addition, we may not be able to find suitable investments for the funds to effectively deploy capital, which could adversely affect our ability to raise new funds because we can generally only raise capital for a successor fund following the substantial and successful deployment of capital from the existing fund. In the event of poor performance by existing funds or during periods of unfavorable fundraising conditions, pressures by fund investors for

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lower fees, different fee sharing arrangements for transaction or other fees, and other concessions (for example, the inclusion of performance hurdles that require us in our newer funds, including all our newer private equity funds such as North America Fund XI, Asian Fund II and European Fund IV, to generate a specified return on investment prior to our right to receive carried interest) will likely continue and could increase. The outcome of such negotiations could result in our agreement to terms that are materially less favorable to us than for prior funds we have managed. In addition, successor funds raised by us when such unfavorable circumstances described above exist would also likely result in smaller funds than our comparable predecessor funds. Fund investors may also seek to redeploy capital away from certain of our credit or other non‑private equity investment vehicles, which permit redemptions on relatively short notice, in order to meet liquidity needs or invest in other asset classes or with other managers. Any of these developments could adversely affect our future revenues, net income, cash flow, financial condition or ability to retain our employees. See “-Our inability to raise additional or successor funds could have a material adverse impact on our business” and “-Our investors in future funds may negotiate to pay us lower management fees and the economic terms of our future funds may be less favorable to us than those of our existing funds, which could adversely affect our revenues.”
During periods of difficult market or economic conditions or slowdowns (which may occur across one or more industries, sectors or geographies), companies in which we have invested may experience decreased revenues, financial losses, credit rating downgrades, difficulty in obtaining access to financing and increased funding costs. These companies may also have difficulty in expanding their businesses and operations or be unable to meet their debt service obligations or other expenses as they become due, including amounts payable to us. Negative financial results in our funds’ portfolio companies may result in lower investment returns for our investment funds, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flow. To the extent the operating performance of such portfolio companies (as well as valuation multiples) deteriorate or do not improve, our funds may sell those assets at values that are less than we projected or even at a loss, thereby significantly affecting those funds’ performance and consequently our operating results and cash flow and resulting in lower or no carried interest being paid to us. Adverse conditions may also increase the risk of default with respect to private equity, credit and other investments that we manage or the abandonment or foreclosure of our real asset investments. Even if economic and market conditions do improve broadly, adverse conditions in particular sectors may also cause our performance to suffer. Finally, low interest rates related to monetary stimulus, economic stagnation or deflation may negatively impact expected returns on all types of investments as the demand for relatively higher return assets increases and the supply decreases.    In addition, our Capital Markets segment generates fees through a variety of activities in connection with the issuance and placement of equity and debt securities and credit facilities, with the size of fees generally correlated to overall transaction sizes. As a result, the conditions in financial markets as described above, as well as transaction activity in our Private Markets segment and to a lesser extent, Public Markets segment, impact both the frequency and size of fees generated by this segment.
Changes in the debt financing markets may negatively impact the ability of our investment funds, their portfolio companies and strategies pursued with our balance sheet assets to obtain attractive financing for their investments or refinance existing debt and may increase the cost of such financing if it is obtained, which could lead to lower‑yielding investments and potentially decrease our net income.
In the event that our funds are unable to obtain committed debt financing for potential acquisitions or can only obtain debt at an increased interest rate or on unfavorable terms, our funds may have difficulty completing otherwise profitable acquisitions or may generate profits that are lower than would otherwise be the case, either of which could lead to a decrease in the investment income earned by us. Any failure by lenders to provide previously committed financing can also expose us to potential claims by sellers of businesses which we may have contracted to purchase. Similarly, certain of the strategies pursued using our balance sheet assets rely on the use of leverage, including the issuance of CLOs, and other secured and unsecured borrowings. Additionally, credit spreads in the lowest rated high yield bonds have increased from cyclical lows in 2014, and financing sources particularly in the U.S., are exercising caution in providing new credits. This tightening in debt financing could impact our ability to finance transactions. Our ability to generate returns on these assets and make cash available for distribution to our unitholders would be reduced to the extent that changes in market conditions cause the cost of our financing to increase relative to the income that can be derived from the assets acquired and financed. Similarly, our portfolio companies regularly utilize the corporate debt markets in order to obtain financing for their operations. To the extent that credit markets render such financing difficult to obtain or more expensive, this may negatively impact the operating performance of those portfolio companies and, therefore, the investment returns on our funds. In addition, to the extent that conditions in the credit markets impair the ability of our portfolio companies to refinance or extend maturities on their outstanding debt, either on favorable terms or at all, the operating performance of those portfolio companies may be negatively impacted, which could impair the value of our investment in those portfolio companies and lead to a decrease in the investment income earned by us. In some cases, the inability of our portfolio companies to refinance or extend maturities may result in the inability of those companies to repay debt at maturity and may cause the companies to sell assets, undergo a recapitalization or seek bankruptcy protection, which would also likely impair the value of our investment and lead to a decrease in investment income earned by us.

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We have significant liquidity requirements, and adverse economic and market conditions may adversely affect our sources of liquidity, which could adversely affect our business operations in the future.
We expect that our primary liquidity needs will consist of cash required to:
continue to grow our business, including seeding new strategies and funding our capital commitments made to existing and future funds, co‑ investments and any net capital requirements of our capital markets companies;
warehouse investments in portfolio companies or other investments for the benefit of one or more of our funds, accounts or CLOs pending the contribution of committed capital by the investors in such vehicles;
service debt obligations including the payment of obligations upon maturity or redemption, as well as any contingent liabilities that may give rise to future cash payments;
fund cash operating expenses and amounts recorded for litigation matters;
pay amounts that may become due under our tax receivable agreement with KKR Holdings;
make cash distributions in accordance with our distribution policy;
underwrite commitments within our capital markets business;
fund our equity commitment to joint ventures such as Merchant Capital Solutions LLC;
make future purchase price payments in connection with our proprietary acquisitions, such as our acquisition of Prisma and strategic partnerships with other fund managers;
acquire additional principal assets, including other businesses and office space; and
repurchase KKR & Co. L.P. common units, including pursuant to the unit repurchase program announced on October 27, 2015.
These liquidity requirements are significant and, in some cases, involve capital that will remain invested for extended periods of time. As of December 31, 2015, we have approximately $1.4 billion of remaining unfunded capital commitments to our investment funds. Our commitments to our funds will require significant cash outlays over time, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flows from realizations of investments to fund them.
In addition, as of December 31, 2015, we had $2.0 billion of borrowings outstanding under our credit facilities and debt securities and $1.3 billion of cash and short‑term investments. This includes KFN’s debt obligations of $657.3 million and KFN’s 7.375% Series A LLC preferred shares of $373.8 million, which do not provide for recourse to KKR beyond the assets of KFN. While we have long‑term committed financings with substantial facility limits, the terms of those facilities will expire in 2017 and 2019, and our senior notes become due in 2020, 2043 and 2044, and any borrowings thereunder will require refinancing or renewal, which could result in higher borrowing costs, or issuing equity. Depending on credit or other market conditions, we may not be able to renew all or part of these borrowings or find alternate sources of financing on commercially reasonable terms and we may not be able to raise equity. In addition, the incurrence of additional debt by us or our subsidiaries in the future could result in downgrades of our existing corporate credit ratings, which could limit the availability of future financing and increase our costs of borrowing.
In addition, the underwriting commitments for our capital markets business may require significant cash obligations, and these commitments may also put pressure on our liquidity. The holding company for our capital markets business has entered into a credit agreement that provides for revolving borrowings of up to $500 million, which can only be used in connection with our capital markets business, including placing and underwriting securities offerings. To the extent we commit to buy and sell an issue of securities in firm commitment underwritings or otherwise, we may be required to borrow under our credit agreement for our capital markets business to fund such obligations, which, depending on the size and timing of the obligations, may limit our ability to enter into other underwriting arrangements or similar activities, service existing debt obligations or otherwise grow our business. Regulatory capital requirements may also limit the ability of our broker‑dealer subsidiaries to participate in underwriting or other transactions or to allocate our capital more efficiently across our businesses.

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In connection with our acquisition of Prisma and strategic partnerships with Nephila and Marshall Wace, we may be obligated to make future purchase price payments based on the respective performance of these businesses or the exercise of certain options. In addition in connection with the development of a new KKR office in New York City, we will be required to pay for the construction and completion of the office.
In the event that our liquidity requirements were to exceed available liquid assets for the reasons specified above or for any other reason, we could be forced to sell assets or seek to raise debt or equity capital on unfavorable terms. For further discussion of our liquidity needs see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity.”
The “clawback” or “net loss sharing” provisions in our governing agreements may give rise to a contingent obligation that may require us to return or contribute amounts to our funds and fund investors.
The partnership documents governing our carry‑paying funds, including funds relating to private equity, infrastructure, energy, real estate, mezzanine, direct lending and special situations investments, generally include a “clawback” provision that, if triggered, may give rise to a contingent obligation requiring the general partner to return amounts to the fund for distribution to the fund investors at the end of the life of the fund. Under a clawback obligation, upon the liquidation of a fund, the general partner is required to return, typically on an after‑tax basis, previously distributed carry to the extent that, due to the diminished performance of later investments, the aggregate amount of carry distributions received by the general partner during the term of the fund exceed the amount to which the general partner was ultimately entitled, including the effects of any performance thresholds. Excluding carried interest received by the general partners of funds that were not contributed to us in the KPE Transaction, as of December 31, 2015, no carried interest was subject to this clawback obligation, assuming that all applicable carry paying funds were liquidated at their December 31, 2015 fair values. Had the investments in such funds been liquidated at zero value, the clawback obligation would have been $2,423.4 million.
Certain private equity funds that were contributed to us in the KPE Transaction in 2009 also include a “net loss sharing provision.” Upon the liquidation of an investment vehicle to which a net loss sharing obligation applies, the general partner is required to contribute capital to the vehicle, to fund 20% of the net losses on investments. In these vehicles, such losses would be required to be paid by us to the fund investors in those vehicles in the event of a liquidation of the fund regardless of whether any carried interest had previously been distributed, and a greater share of investment losses would be allocable to us relative to the capital that we contributed to it as general partner. Based on the fair market values as of December 31, 2015, there would have been no net loss sharing obligation. If the vehicles were liquidated at zero value, the net loss sharing obligation would have been zero as of December 31, 2015.
Prior to the KPE Transaction in 2009, certain of our principals who received carried interest distributions with respect to certain private equity funds contributed to us had personally guaranteed, on a several basis and subject to a cap, the contingent obligations of the general partners of such private equity funds to repay amounts to fund investors pursuant to the general partners’ clawback obligations. The terms of the KPE Transaction require that our principals remain responsible for any clawback obligations relating to carry distributions received prior to the KPE Transaction, up to a maximum of $223.6 million. Through investment realizations, this amount has been reduced to $159.7 million as of December 31, 2015. Using valuations as of December 31, 2015, no amounts are due with respect to the clawback obligation required to be funded by our principals. Carry distributions arising subsequent to the KPE Transaction may give rise to clawback obligations that may be allocated generally to us and our principals who participate in the carry pool. Unlike the clawback obligation, we will be responsible for amounts due under a net loss sharing obligation and will indemnify our principals for any personal guarantees that they have provided with respect to such amounts. In addition, guarantees of or similar arrangements relating to clawback or net loss sharing obligations in favor of third party investors in an individual investment partnership by entities we own may limit distributions of carried interest more generally.
Our earnings and cash flow are highly variable due to the nature of our business and we do not intend to provide earnings guidance, each of which may cause the value of interests in our business to be volatile.
Our earnings are highly variable from quarter to quarter due to the volatility of investment returns of most of our funds, other investment vehicles and our principal assets and the fees earned from our businesses. We recognize earnings on investments in our funds based on our allocable share of realized and unrealized gains (or losses) reported by such funds and for certain of our recent funds, when a performance hurdle is achieved. During times of market volatility, as we are presently experiencing, the fair value of our funds and our principal assets are more variable, and as publicly traded equity securities currently represent a higher proportion of the assets of many of our funds and principal assets than in the prior year, volatility in the equity markets may have a greater impact on our reported results than in the past. See also "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition & Results of Operations--Critical Accounting Policies -- Fair Value Measurements" for a

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discussion of the impact of equity markets on the value of private equity investments. A decline in realized or unrealized gains, a failure to achieve a performance hurdle or an increase in realized or unrealized losses, would adversely affect our net income.
Fee income, which we recognize when contractually earned, can vary due to fluctuations in AUM, the number of investment transactions made by our funds, the number of portfolio companies we manage, the fee provisions contained in our funds and other investment products and transactions by our capital markets business. In any particular quarter, fee income may vary significantly due to the receipt of termination fees or fees received by our Capital Markets business from syndications, in particular large equity syndications. While these events occur periodically, they generally do not occur every quarter and their size and frequency are variable. Fees and Other for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were $762.5 million and $1,110.0 million and $1,043.8 million, respectively. We may create new funds or investment products or vary the terms of our funds or investment products (for example our newer funds include performance hurdles), which may alter the composition or mix of our income from time to time. We may also experience fluctuations in our results from quarter to quarter, including our revenue and net income, due to a number of other factors, including changes in the values of our funds’ investments, changes in the amount of distributions or interest earned in respect of investments, changes in our operating expenses, the degree to which we encounter competition and general economic and market conditions. In addition, our earnings and cash flows are dependent in part on the performance of KFN, a specialty finance company that we acquired in 2014, and is subject to the risks to KFN’s businesses as described elsewhere in the report. Although KFN is a subsidiary of KKR, KFN has its own indebtedness and preferred shares outstanding. The terms of its indebtedness and preferred shares impose limitations on KFN’s current and future operations and may restrict its ability to make distributions to KKR. Net income (loss) attributable to KKR & Co. L.P. for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015 was $691.2 million, $477.6 million and $488.5 million, respectively. Such fluctuations may lead to variability in the value of interests in our business and cause our results for a particular period not to be indicative of our performance in future periods. It may be difficult for us to achieve steady growth in net income and cash flow on a quarterly basis, which could in turn lead to large adverse movements in the value of interests in our business.
The timing and receipt of carried interest from our investment funds are unpredictable and will contribute to the volatility of our cash flows. For example, with respect to our private equity funds, carried interest is distributed to the general partner of a private equity fund with a clawback or net loss sharing provision only after all of the following are met: (i) a realization event has occurred (e.g., sale of a portfolio company, dividend, etc.); (ii) the vehicle has achieved positive overall investment returns since its inception, in excess of performance hurdles where applicable; and (iii) with respect to investments with a fair value below cost, cost has been returned to fund investors in an amount sufficient to reduce remaining cost to the investments’ fair value. Carried interest payments from investments depend on our funds’ performance and opportunities for realizing gains, which may be limited. It takes a substantial period of time to identify attractive investment opportunities, to raise all the funds needed to make an investment and then to realize the cash value (or other proceeds) of an investment through a sale, public offering or other exit. To the extent an investment is not profitable, no carried interest will be received from our funds with respect to that investment and, to the extent such investment remains unprofitable, we will only be entitled to a management fee on that investment. Furthermore, certain vehicles and separately managed accounts may not provide for the payment of any carried interest at all. Even if an investment proves to be profitable, it may be several years before any profits can be realized in cash. We cannot predict when, or if, any realization of investments will occur. In addition, if finance providers, such as commercial and investment banks, make it difficult for potential purchasers to secure financing to purchase companies in our investment funds’ portfolio, it may decrease potential realization events and the potential to earn carried interest. A downturn in the equity markets would also make it more difficult to exit investments by selling equity securities. If we were to have a realization event in a particular quarter, the event may have a significant impact on our cash flows during the quarter that may not be replicated in subsequent quarters. A decline in realized or unrealized gains, or an increase in realized or unrealized losses, would adversely affect our investment income, which could further increase the volatility of our quarterly results.
The timing and receipt of carried interest also varies with the life cycle of certain of our funds. Our carry paying funds that have completed their investment periods and are able to realize mature investments, sometimes referred to as being in a harvesting period, are more likely to make larger distributions than our carry paying funds that are in their fund raising or investment periods that precede the harvesting period. During times when a significant portion of our assets under management is attributable to carry paying funds that are not in their harvesting periods, we may receive substantially lower carried interest distributions.
In addition, with respect to certain of the funds that we advise, such as hedge funds and fund of funds, we are entitled to incentive fees that are generally paid annually in June and December if the net asset value of a fund has increased over a certain pre‑determined hurdle rate or a specified high‑water mark. These funds generally also have “high‑water mark” provisions whereby if the funds have experienced losses in prior periods, we will not be able to earn incentive fees with respect to a fund investor’s account until the net asset value of the fund investor’s account exceeds the highest period end value on which incentive fees were previously paid. The incentive fees we earn are therefore dependent on the net asset value of these funds or

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vehicles, which could lead to volatility in our quarterly results and cash flow. Fees, including incentive fees, from KFN have been eliminated upon the completion of the KFN merger on a segment basis.
A decline in the pace or size of investment by our funds, or a change in the terms governing transaction fees, management fees or monitoring fees would result in our receiving less revenue from fees.
The transaction and management or monitoring fees that we earn are driven in part by the pace at which our funds make investments and the size of those investments. Any decline in that pace or the size of investments would reduce our revenue from transaction and management or monitoring fees. Likewise, during an attractive selling environment, our funds may capitalize on increased opportunities to exit investments. Any increase in the pace at which our funds exit investments, if not offset by new commitments and investments, would reduce future management fees. Many factors could cause such a decline in the pace of investment or the transaction and management or monitoring fees we receive, including:
the inability of our investment professionals to identify attractive investment opportunities;
competition for such opportunities among other potential acquirers;
decreased availability of capital or financing on attractive terms;
our failure to consummate identified investment opportunities because of business, regulatory or legal complexities and adverse developments in the U.S. or global economy or financial markets;
terms we may agree with or provide to our fund investors or investors in separately managed accounts with respect to fees such as increasing the percentage of transaction or other fees we may share with our fund investors; and
new regulations, guidance or other actions provided or taken by regulatory authorities.
Our inability to raise additional or successor funds (or raise successor funds of a comparable size as our predecessor funds) could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our current private equity funds and certain other funds and investment vehicles have a finite life and a finite amount of commitments from fund investors. Once a fund nears the end of its investment period, our success depends on our ability to raise additional or successor funds in order to keep making investments and, over the long term, earning management fees (although our funds and investment vehicles generally continue to earn management fees at a reduced fee rate after the expiration of their investment periods). Even if we are successful in raising successor funds, to the extent we are unable to raise successor funds of a comparable size to our predecessor funds or the extent that we are delayed in raising such a successor fund, our revenues may decrease as the investment period of our predecessor funds expire and associated fees decrease. For example, KKR North America Fund XI and European IV are smaller than their respective predecessor funds . The performance of our funds also impacts our ability to raise capital, and deterioration in the performance of our funds would result in challenges to future fundraising. The evolving preferences of our fund investors may necessitate that alternatives to the traditional investment fund structure, such as managed accounts, smaller funds and co‑investment vehicles, become a larger part of our business going forward. This could increase our cost of raising capital at the scale we have historically achieved. Furthermore, in order to raise capital for new strategies and products without drawing capital away from our existing products, we will need to seek new sources of capital such as individual investors.
To raise new funds and pursue new strategies, we have and expect to continue to use the capital from our balance sheet, which may decrease the liquidity available for other parts of our business. In addition if a new strategy or fund does not develop as anticipated and such assets are not ultimately transferred to a fund, we may be forced to realize losses on these retained assets. Institutional investors in funds that have suffered from decreasing returns, liquidity pressure, increased volatility or difficulty maintaining targeted asset allocations, may materially decrease or temporarily suspend making new fund investments. Such investors may elect to reduce their overall portfolio allocations to alternative investments such as private equity funds, resulting in a smaller overall pool of available capital in our industry. In addition, the asset allocation rules or regulations or investment policies to which such third‑party investors are subject, could inhibit or restrict the ability of third‑party investors to make investments in our investment funds. Coupled with a lack of distributions from their existing investment portfolios, many of these investors may have been left with disproportionately outsized remaining commitments to, and invested capital in, a number of investment funds, which may significantly limit their ability to make new commitments to third‑party managed investment funds such as those advised by us.

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Fund investors may also seek to redeploy capital away from certain of our credit vehicles, hedge fund, fund of funds, registered investment products or other investment vehicles, which permit redemptions on relatively short notice in order to meet liquidity needs or invest in other asset classes. We believe that our ability to avoid excessive redemption levels primarily depends on our funds’ continued satisfactory performance, although redemptions may also be driven by other factors important to our fund investors, including their need for liquidity and compliance with investment mandates, even if our performance is superior. Investors' liquidity needs tend to be more pronounced during periods of market volatility, as at present. Any such redemptions would decrease our AUM and revenues. Investors may also deploy capital away from funds of funds if they deem this asset class’s fee structure unattractive relative to the fees of other alternative products.
In addition, the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or Dodd Frank Act, under what has become known as the “Volcker Rule,” broadly prohibits depository institution holding companies (including foreign banks with U.S. branches, agencies or commercial lending companies and certain insurance companies), insured depository institutions and their subsidiaries and controlled affiliates, or "banking entities," from investing in “covered funds,” including third party private equity funds like ours. Final regulations implementing the Volcker Rule were approved by the federal banking agencies, the SEC and the CFTC on December 10, 2013, although there is still some uncertainty regarding the implementation of the Volcker Rule and the final regulations and their practical implications. Although banking entities are expected to have until July 21, 2017 to conform their covered fund investments and relationships that were in place prior to December 31, 2013 to the requirements of the final regulations ( and may have until July 21, 2022 to conform investments in a private equity fund that qualifies as an "illiquid fund"), U.S. banking entities will be limited in their ability to undertake new contractual commitments to private equity funds like ours. Foreign banking entities may be able to continue to invest in private equity funds like ours under a Volcker Rule exemption for covered fund activities and investment that occur solely outside of the United States.
Banking entities have historically represented an important class of investors for our funds, with financial institutions constituting approximately 16% of our AUM as of December 31, 2015, and it is possible that other institutions will not be available to replace this traditional source of capital for our private equity funds. Furthermore, divestitures by banking entities of interests in private equity funds and hedge funds over the next several years to comply with the Volcker Rule may lead to lower prices in the secondary market for our fund interests, which could have adverse implications for our ability to raise funds from investors who may have considered the availability of secondary market liquidity as a factor in determining whether to invest. In addition to federal law, changes in state and local law may limit investment activities of state pension plans and insurance companies.
The number of funds raising capital varies from year to year, and in years where relatively few funds are raising capital, the growth of our AUM, FPAUM and associated fees may be significantly lower. For example, for the year ended December 31, 2015, our AUM increased to $119.5 billion of which $19.9 billion was attributable to new capital raised, while AUM as of December 31, 2014 on an adjusted basis was $107.1 billion of which $13.3 billion was attributable to new capital raised. We had several successful fundraises in 2015 for newer strategies such as European real estate, infrastructure, direct lending, mezzanine and special situations, there is no assurance that fundraises for other new strategies or successor funds will experience similar success in the future.
Our investors in future funds, including separately managed accounts, may negotiate to pay us lower management fees or reimburse us for fewer expenses and the economic terms of our future funds may be less favorable to us than those of our existing funds, which could adversely affect our revenues or profitability.
In connection with raising new funds or securing additional investments in existing funds, we negotiate terms for such funds and investments with investors. The outcome of such negotiations could result in our agreement to terms that are materially less favorable to us than the terms of prior funds we have advised or funds advised by our competitors. For example, such terms could restrict our ability to raise investment funds with investment objectives or strategies that compete with existing funds, reduce fee revenues we earn, reduce the percentage of profits on third‑party capital in which we share, include a performance hurdle that requires us to generate a specified return on investment prior to our right to receive carried interest or add expenses and obligations for us in managing the fund or increase our potential liabilities. For example our newer private equity funds, including North America Fund XI, Asian Fund II and European Fund IV, include a performance hurdle that requires us to generate a 7% return on investment prior to receiving our share of fund gains. Furthermore, as institutional investors increasingly consolidate their relationships with investment firms and competition becomes more acute, we may receive more of these requests to modify the terms in our new funds. Certain of our newer funds also include more favorable terms for fund investors that commit to early closes for our funds. Additionally, in certain funds, we have agreed to charge management fees based on invested capital or net asset value as opposed to charging management fees based on committed capital. In certain cases, we have provided “fee holidays” to certain investors in which we do not charge management fees for a fixed period of time (such as the first six months).  Agreement to terms that are materially less favorable to us could result in a decrease in our profitability.

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Certain institutional investors have also publicly criticized certain fund fee and expense structures, including monitoring fees and transaction and advisory fees. We have received and expect to continue to receive requests from a variety of fund investors and groups representing such investors to decrease fees and to modify our carried interest and incentive fee structures, which could result in a reduction or delay in the timing of receipt of the fees and carried interest and incentive fees we earn.     The SEC has also recently focused on certain fund fees and expenses, including whether such fees and expenses were appropriately disclosed to limited partners, which may cause fund investor resistance to our receipt of fees and /expenses be reimbursed to us. In our newer flagship private equity funds, we have increased the percentage of transaction and monitoring fees that are credited against fund management fees to as much as 100% of the amount of the transaction and monitoring fee attributable to that fund. In September of 2009, the Institutional Limited Partners Association, or “ILPA,” published a set of Private Equity Principles, or the “Principles,” which were revised in January 2011. The Principles were developed in order to encourage discussion between limited partners and general partners regarding private equity fund partnership terms. Certain of the Principles call for enhanced alignment of interests between general partners and limited partners through modifications of some of the terms of fund arrangements, including proposed guidelines for fees and carried interest structures. We provided ILPA our endorsement of the Principles, representing an indication of our general support for the efforts of ILPA.
In addition, certain institutional investors, including sovereign wealth funds and public pension funds, have demonstrated an increased preference for alternatives to the traditional investment fund structure, such as managed accounts, specialized funds and co‑investment vehicles. We also have entered into strategic partnerships with individual investors whereby we manage that investor’s capital across a variety of our products on separately negotiated terms. There can be no assurance that such alternatives will be as profitable to us as the traditional investment fund structure, and the impact such a trend could have on our results of operations, if widely implemented, is unclear. Moreover, certain institutional investors are demonstrating a preference to in‑source their own investment professionals and to make direct investments in alternative assets without the assistance of investment advisers like us. Such institutional investors may become our competitors and could cease to be our clients.
Any agreement to or changes in terms less favorable to us could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
The investment management business is intensely competitive, which could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We compete as an investment manager for both fund investors and investment opportunities. The investment management business is highly fragmented, with our competitors consisting primarily of sponsors of public and private investment funds, real estate development companies, business development companies, investment banks, commercial finance companies and operating companies acting as strategic buyers of businesses. We believe that competition for fund investors is based primarily on:
investment performance;
investor liquidity and willingness to invest;
investor perception of investment managers’ drive, focus and alignment of interest;
business reputation;
the duration of relationships with fund investors;
the quality of services provided to fund investors;
pricing;
fund terms (including fees); and
the relative attractiveness of the types of investments that have been or will be made.
We believe that competition for investment opportunities is based primarily on the pricing, terms and structure of a proposed investment and certainty of execution.
    

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A number of factors serve to increase our competitive risks:
a number of our competitors in some of our businesses may have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and more personnel than we do, and, in the case of some asset classes, longer operating histories, more established relationships or greater experience;
fund investors may materially decrease their allocations in new funds due to their experiences following an economic downturn, the limited availability of capital, regulatory requirements or a desire to consolidate their relationships with investment firms;
some of our competitors may have better expertise or be regarded by fund investors as having better expertise in a specific asset class or geographic region than we do;
some of our competitors have agreed to terms on their investment funds or products that may be more favorable to fund investors than our funds or products, such as lower management fees, greater fee sharing, or performance hurdles for carried interest, and therefore we may be forced to match or otherwise revise our terms to be less favorable to us than they have been in the past;
some of our funds may not perform as well as competitors’ funds or other available investment products;
our competitors have raised or may raise significant amounts of capital, and many of them have similar investment objectives and strategies to our funds, which may create additional competition for investment opportunities and may reduce the size and duration of pricing inefficiencies that many alternative investment strategies seek to exploit;
some of these competitors may also have a lower cost of capital and access to funding sources that are not available to us, which may create competitive disadvantages for us with respect to investment opportunities;
some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances, different risk assessments or lower return thresholds, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and to bid more aggressively than us for investments;
some of our competitors may be subject to less regulation or less regulatory scrutiny and accordingly may have more flexibility to undertake and execute certain businesses or investments than we do and/or bear less expense to comply with such regulations than we do;
there are relatively few barriers to entry impeding the formation of new funds, including a relatively low cost of entering these businesses, and the successful efforts of new entrants into our various lines of business, including major commercial and investment banks and other financial institutions, have resulted in increased competition;
some fund investors may prefer to invest with an investment manager that is not publicly traded, is smaller, or manages fewer investment products; and
other industry participants will from time to time seek to recruit our investment professionals and other employees away from us.
We may lose investment opportunities in the future if we do not match investment prices, structures and terms offered by competitors. Our competitors that are corporate buyers may be able to achieve synergistic cost savings in respect of an investment, which may provide them with a competitive advantage in bidding for an investment. Alternatively, we may experience decreased investment returns and increased risks of loss if we match investment prices, structures and terms offered by competitors. Moreover, as a result, if we are forced to compete with other investment firms on the basis of price, we may not be able to maintain our current fund fee, carried interest or other terms. There is a risk that fees and carried interest in the alternative investment management industry will decline, without regard to the historical performance of a manager. Fee or carried interest income reductions on existing or future funds, without corresponding decreases in our cost structure, would adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
In addition, if interest rates were to rise or if market conditions for competing investment products become or are favorable and such products begin to offer rates of return superior to those achieved by our funds, the attractiveness of our funds relative to investments in other investment products could decrease. This competitive pressure could adversely affect our ability to make successful investments and limit our ability to raise future funds, either of which would adversely impact our business, results of operations and cash flow.

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Our structure involves complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax laws for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. These structures also are subject to potential legislative, judicial or administrative change and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.
The U.S. federal income tax treatment of our unitholders depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax laws for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. The U.S. federal income tax rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process, the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and the U.S. Department of the Treasury, frequently resulting in revised interpretations of established concepts, statutory changes, revisions to regulations and other modifications and interpretations. The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of owning our common units may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial interpretation at any time, and any such action may affect investments and commitments previously made. The maintenance of the structure and tax attributes of the KKR Group Partnerships, which comprise our businesses, requires significant monitoring and resources. Failure to maintain this structure could result in material adverse tax consequences. Our organizational documents and agreements give the Managing Partner broad authority to modify the amended and restated partnership agreement from time to time as the Managing Partner determines to be necessary or appropriate, without the consent of the unitholders, to address changes in U.S. federal, state and local income tax regulations, legislation or interpretation. In some circumstances, such revisions could have a material adverse impact on some or all unitholders.
The U.S. Congress has considered legislation that would have (i) in some cases after a ten‑year period, precluded us from qualifying as a partnership or required us to hold carried interest through taxable subsidiary corporations and (ii) taxed certain income and gains at increased rates. If any similar legislation were to be enacted and apply to us, the after‑tax income and gain related to our business, as well as the market price of our units, could be reduced.
In the past, a number of legislative and administrative proposals have been introduced and, in certain cases, have been passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, that would have, in general, treated all or a portion of our carried interest as income subject to a tax rate that is higher than under current law. It is unclear when or whether the U.S. Congress will pass such legislation or what provisions will be included in any legislation, if enacted.
Some legislative and administrative proposals have provided that, for taxable years beginning after the date of enactment (or in some cases, beginning ten years after the date of enactment), income derived with respect to carried interest would not meet the qualifying income requirements under the publicly traded partnership rules. Therefore, if similar legislation is enacted, following such enactment (or such ten‑year period), we would be precluded from qualifying as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If we were taxed as a U.S. corporation, our effective tax rate would increase significantly. The federal statutory rate for corporations is currently 35%. In addition, we could be subject to increased state and local taxes. Furthermore, you could be subject to tax on our conversion into a corporation.
States and other jurisdictions have also considered legislation to increase taxes with respect to carried interest. For example, New York has periodically considered legislation under which you could be subject to New York state income tax on income in respect of our common units as a result of certain activities of our affiliates in New York, although it is unclear when or whether such legislation will be enacted.
If the proposed legislation described above or any similar legislation were to be enacted and apply to us, the after‑tax income and gain related to our business, our ability to fund cash distributions, as well as the market price of our units, could be reduced.
Additional proposed changes in the U.S. and foreign taxation of businesses could adversely affect us.
The U.S. Congress, the Organization for Economic Co‑operation and Development (or, OECD) and other government agencies in jurisdictions in which we and our affiliates invest or do business have maintained a focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational companies. The OECD is contemplating changes to numerous long‑standing tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (or, BEPS) project, which is focused on a number of issues, including the distribution of profits between affiliated entities in different tax jurisdictions. Additionally, the Obama administration has announced other proposals for potential reform to the U.S. federal income tax rules for businesses, including reducing the deductibility of interest for corporations, reducing the top marginal rate on corporations and subjecting entities, like many of our entities, currently treated as partnerships for tax purposes to an entity‑level income tax similar to the corporate income tax. A number of European jurisdictions have enacted taxes on financial transactions, and the European Commission has proposed legislation to harmonize these taxes under the so-called "enhanced cooperation procedure", which provides for adoption of EU-level legislation applicable to some but not all EU Member States. Several of these proposals for reform, if enacted by the U.S. or by other countries in which we or our affiliates invest or do business, could adversely affect our investment returns and could reduce the

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cash we have available for distributions to unitholders or for other uses by us. It is unclear what any actual legislation could provide, when it would be proposed or what its prospects for enactment could be.
We depend on our founders and other key personnel, the loss of whose services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results and financial condition.
We depend on the efforts, skills, reputations and business contacts of our employees, including our founders, Henry Kravis and George Roberts, and other key personnel, the information and deal flow they and others generate during the normal course of their activities and the synergies among the diverse fields of expertise and knowledge held by our professionals. Accordingly, our success depends on the continued service of these individuals, who are not obligated to remain employed with us. The loss of the services of any of them could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, net income and cash flows and could harm our ability to maintain or grow AUM in existing funds or raise additional funds in the future.
Our employees and other key personnel possess substantial experience and expertise and have strong business relationships with investors in our funds and other members of the business community. As a result, the loss of these personnel could jeopardize our relationships with investors in our funds and members of the business community and result in the reduction of AUM or fewer investment opportunities. For example, if any of our principals were to join or form a competing firm, our business, results and financial condition could suffer.
Furthermore, the agreements governing our committed capital funds generally provide that in the event certain “key persons” (for example, both of Messrs. Kravis and Roberts for our private equity funds, and, in the case of certain geographically or product focused funds, one or more of the executives focused on such funds) generally cease to actively manage a fund or be substantially involved in KKR activities, investors in the fund will be entitled to reduce, in whole or in part, their capital commitments available for further investments on an investor‑by‑investor basis. In the case of certain of our fully paid-up funds, investors may be permitted to terminate their investment in the event a "key persons" provision is triggered, which could possibly lead to a liquidation of those funds. In addition, the occurrence of such a "key person" event could cause us to agree to less favorable ongoing terms with respect to the affected fund. The occurrence of such an event would likely have a significant negative impact on our revenue, net income and cash flow.
If we cannot retain and motivate our principals and other key personnel and recruit, retain and motivate new employees and other key personnel, our business, results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our most important asset is our people, and our continued success is highly dependent upon the efforts of our employees and other key personnel, and to a substantial degree on our ability to retain and motivate our employees and other key personnel and to strategically recruit, retain and motivate new talented employees, including qualified investment professionals. However, we may not be successful in these efforts as the market for qualified investment professionals is extremely competitive. Our ability to recruit, retain and motivate our employees is dependent on our ability to offer highly attractive incentive opportunities. If previously proposed legislation regarding the increased taxation of carried interest were to be enacted, income and gains recognized with respect to carried interest would be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as ordinary income rather than as capital gain. Such legislation would materially increase the amount of taxes that we, our employees and other key personnel would be required to pay, thereby adversely affecting our ability to offer such attractive incentive opportunities. See “-Risks Related to U.S. Taxation”. Similarly, changes in the United Kingdom with respect to the taxation of carried interest, including the proposal to tax certain carried interest returns as income from April 6, 2016 would impact our ability to recruit, retain and motivate employees and key personnel in the United Kingdom. In addition, there have been proposed laws and regulations that sought to regulate the compensation of certain of our employees. See “-Extensive Regulation of our business affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties.” The possibility of increased regulatory focus or legislative or regulatory changes could result in additional burdens on our business.” The loss of even a small number of our investment professionals could jeopardize the performance of our funds and other investment products, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Efforts to retain or attract employees, including our investment professionals, may result in significant additional expenses, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Many of our employees hold interests in our business through KKR Holdings. These individuals historically received financial benefits from our business in the form of distributions and amounts funded by KKR Holdings and through their direct and indirect participation in the value of KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR Holdings. While all of our employees receive base salaries from us, annual cash bonuses for certain employees currently are borne by KKR Holdings from cash reserves based upon distributions on a portion of KKR Group Partnership Units held by KKR Holdings. In 2015, the amount of such annual cash bonuses paid by KKR Holdings L.P. was $74.6 million.  Effective with the distribution to be paid on March 8, 2016, with respect to the quarter ending December 31, 2015, KKR has changed its distribution policy. Under the new distribution policy, KKR intends to make equal quarterly distributions to holders of its common units in an amount of $0.16 per common unit per quarter.  To the extent that distributions are made on KKR Group Partnership Units underlying any unvested

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KKR Holdings units, such amounts under the new distribution policy would be insufficient to fund annual cash bonus compensation. We, therefore, expect to pay an increasing portion and eventually all of the cash bonus payments from other sources, including cash from our operations and the carry pool. As a result, either our profit margins or our employee retention or both may be adversely impacted. There can be no assurance that the carry pool will have sufficient cash available to continue to make such cash payments in the future and fluctuations from the distributions generated from the carry pool, if not offset by compensation from other sources, could render our compensation less attractive. In any of these circumstances, a higher percentage of our revenue may be paid out in the form of cash compensation, which would be expected to have an adverse impact on our profit margins.
Moreover, in connection with the KPE Transaction, we made large grants of KKR Holdings units that vested in installments over a five year period commencing October 1, 2009 and that completely vested on October 1, 2014, subject to certain transfer restrictions. We have granted and expect to grant equity awards from our Equity Incentive Plan, which has caused dilution. While we evaluate the grant of equity awards from our Equity Incentive Plan to employees on an annual basis, the size of the grants, if any, is made at our discretion and is expected to be generally smaller in number of units than the grants of KKR Holdings units made on October 1, 2009 and with service‑based vesting periods generally of approximately three years from date of grant. As we increase the use of equity awards from our Equity Incentive Plan in the future, expense associated with equity based compensation may increase materially. For example, in 2016 we allocated equity awards relating to 13.3 million KKR & Co. L.P. common units, under the Equity Incentive Plan. In 2016 KKR Holdings granted 28.9 million KKR Holdings units to certain senior employees and non-employee operating consultants. Such grants are subject to price vesting conditions in addition to service-based vesting conditions, which may make such grants a less effective retention mechanism if the price vesting condition is not achieved. See "Executive Compensation--Compensation Discussion and Analysis--Compensation Elements--KKR Holdings Market Condition Awards" for the terms and conditions of such KKR Holdings units. The value of the KKR Holdings units and common units may drop in value or be volatile, which may make our equity less attractive to our employees. In July 2015, the SEC also proposed rules requiring companies to develop and enforce recovery policies that in the event of an accounting restatement, “claw back” from current and former executive officers incentive-based compensation they would not have received based on the restatement. If such rules are adopted as proposed and are deemed applicable to any component of our compensation, the effectiveness of our compensation as a retention mechanism may be further reduced. In addition, less carried interest from the carry pool may be allocated to certain of our employees, which may result in less cash payments to such employees. To the extent our equity incentive or carry pool programs are not effective, we may be limited in our ability to attract, retain and motivate talented employees and other key personnel and we may need to increase the level of cash compensation that we pay.
In addition, there is no guarantee that the confidentiality and restrictive covenant agreements to which our employees and other key personnel are subject, together with our other arrangements with them, will prevent them from leaving us, joining our competitors or otherwise competing with us. Depending on which entity is a party to these agreements and/or the laws applicable to them, we may not be able to enforce them or become subject to lawsuits or other claims, and certain of these agreements might be waived, modified or amended at any time without our consent. Even when enforceable, these agreements expire after a certain period of time, at which point each of our employees and other key personnel are in any event free to compete against us and solicit our fund investors and employees. See “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence-Confidentiality and Restrictive Covenant Agreements.”
We strive to maintain a work environment that reinforces our culture of collaboration, motivation and alignment of interests with fund investors. If we do not continue to develop and implement the right processes and tools to manage our changing enterprise and maintain our culture, our ability to compete successfully and achieve our business objectives could be impaired, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Operational risks and data security breaches may disrupt our businesses, result in losses or limit our growth.
We rely heavily on our financial, accounting and other data processing systems. If any of these systems do not operate properly or are disabled, we could suffer financial loss, a disruption of our businesses, liability to our funds, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. In addition, we operate in businesses that are highly dependent on information systems and technology. For example, we face operational risk from errors made in the execution, confirmation or settlement of transactions. We also face operational risk from transactions not being properly recorded, evaluated or accounted for in our funds. In particular, our Public Markets business is highly dependent on our ability to process and evaluate, on a daily basis, transactions across markets and geographies in a time-sensitive, efficient and accurate manner. Our information systems and technology may not continue to be able to accommodate our growth, may not be suitable for new products and strategies and may be subject to security risks, and the cost of maintaining such systems may increase from our current level. Such a failure to accommodate growth, or an increase in costs related to such information systems, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Furthermore, we depend on our principal offices in New York City, where most of our administrative personnel are

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located, and technology and infrastructure concentrated in New York City and other offices for the continued operation of our business. We are also dependent on an increasingly concentrated group of third party vendors that we do not control for hosting solutions and technologies. A disaster or a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our businesses, including a disruption involving electronic communications or other services used by us, our vendors or third parties with whom we conduct business, or directly affecting our principal offices, could have a material adverse impact on our ability to continue to operate our business without interruption. Our business continuation or disaster recovery programs may not be sufficient to mitigate the harm that may result from such a disaster or disruption. In addition, insurance and other safeguards might only partially reimburse us for our losses, if at all.
Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks. We face various security threats on a regular basis, including ongoing cyber security threats to and attacks on our information technology infrastructure that are intended to gain access to our proprietary information, destroy data or disable, degrade or sabotage our systems. Although we take protective measures and endeavor to modify them as circumstances warrant, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, theft, misuse, computer viruses or other malicious code, and other events that could have a security impact. We and our employees may be the target of fraudulent emails.  The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. In addition, cyber security has become a top priority for regulators around the world.  If one or more of such events occur, this potentially could jeopardize our or our fund investors’ or counterparties’ confidential and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our, our fund investors’, our counterparties’ or third parties’ operations, which could result in significant losses, increased costs, disruption of our business, liability to our fund investors and other counter-parties, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. Finally, we rely on third party service providers for certain aspects of our business, including for certain information systems, technology, administration, tax and compliance matters. Any interruption or deterioration in the performance of these third parties could impair the quality of our and our funds’ operations and could impact our reputation and adversely affect our businesses and limit our ability to grow.
Our portfolio companies also rely on data processing systems and the secure processing, storage and transmission of information, including payment and health information. A disruption or compromise of these systems could have a material adverse effect on the value of these businesses. Our funds may invest in strategic assets having a national or regional profile or in infrastructure assets, the nature of which could expose them to a greater risk of being subject to a terrorist attack or security breach than other assets or businesses. Such an event may have adverse consequences on our investment or assets of the same type or may require portfolio companies to increase preventative security measures or expand insurance coverage.
Our organizational documents do not limit our ability to enter into new lines of businesses, and we may expand into new investment strategies, geographic markets and businesses, each of which may result in additional risks and uncertainties in our businesses.
We intend, to the extent that market conditions warrant, to seek to grow our businesses by increasing AUM in existing businesses, pursuing new investment strategies, including investment opportunities in new asset classes, developing new types of investment structures and products (such as managed accounts and structured products), and expanding into new geographic markets and businesses. We have in the past opened offices in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America, and also developed a capital markets business in the United States, Europe, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific, which we intend to grow and diversify. We have also launched a number of new investment initiatives in areas such as real estate, energy, infrastructure, hedge funds and growth equity.
Our organic growth strategy focuses on providing resources to foster the development of new product offerings and business strategies by our investment professionals and launching successor and related products, such that our new strategies achieve a level of scale and profitability. Given our diverse platform, these initiatives could create conflicts of interests with existing products, increase our costs and expose us to new market risks, and legal and regulatory requirements. The success of our organic growth strategy will also depend on, among other things, our ability to correctly identify and create products that appeal to the limited partners of our funds and vehicles. While we have made significant expenditures to develop these new strategies and products, there is no assurance that they will achieve a satisfactory level of scale and profitability. We have and may continue to pursue growth through acquisitions of other investment management companies, acquisitions of critical business partners, strategic partnerships or other strategic initiatives, which may include entering into new lines of business. In addition, we expect opportunities will arise to acquire other alternative or traditional investment managers. For example, we have built and expanded our hedge fund solutions business with the acquisition of Prisma and expanded our European credit business with our acquisition of Avoca. We have also made minority investments in hedge fund managers, and we have entered into joint ventures with third parties to participate in new real estate investment strategies. To the extent we make strategic

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investments or acquisitions, undertake other strategic initiatives or enter into a new line of business, we will face numerous risks and uncertainties, including risks associated with:

our ability to successfully negotiate and enter into beneficial arrangements with our counterparties;
the required investment of capital and other resources;
the incurrence of substantial transaction-related costs including non-recurring transaction-related costs;
delays or failure to complete an acquisition or other transaction in a timely manner or at all due to a failure to obtain shareholder or regulatory approvals or satisfy any other closing conditions, which may subject us to damages or require us to pay significant costs;
lawsuits challenging an acquisition or unfavorable judgments in such lawsuits, which may prevent the closing of the transaction, cause delays, or require us to incur substantial costs including in costs associated with the indemnification of directors;
the possibility that we have insufficient expertise to engage in such activities profitably or without incurring inappropriate amounts of risk or liability or have not appropriately planned for such activities;
the possibility of diversion of management’s time and attention from our core business;
the possibility of disruption of our ongoing business;
the failure to realize the anticipated benefits from an acquired business or strategic partnership in a timely manner, if at all;
combining, integrating or developing operational and management systems and controls including an acquired business’s internal controls and procedures;
integration of the businesses including the employees of an acquired business;
potential increase in concentration of the investors in our funds;
disagreements with joint venture partners or other stakeholders in strategic partnerships;
the additional business risks of the acquired business and the broadening of our geographic footprint, including the risks associated with conducting operations in foreign jurisdictions such as taxation;
properly managing conflicts of interests;
our ability to obtain requisite regulatory approvals and licenses without undue cost or delay and without being required to comply with material restrictions or material conditions that would be detrimental to us or to the combined organization; and
regulatory scrutiny or litigation exposure due to the activities of the third party hedge fund managers or joint venture partners.
Entry into certain lines of business may subject us to new laws and regulations with which we are not familiar, or from which we are currently exempt, and may lead to increased litigation and regulatory risk and costs. If a new business generates insufficient revenues or if we are unable to efficiently manage our expanded operations, our results of operations will be adversely affected. Our strategic initiatives include joint ventures or the acquisition of minority interests in third parties, in which case we will be subject to additional risks and uncertainties in that we may be dependent upon, and subject to liability, losses or reputational damage relating to, systems, controls and personnel that are not under our control.
We may not be successful in executing upon or managing the complexities of new investment strategies, markets and businesses, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our growth strategy is based, in part, on the expansion of our platform through selective investment in, and development or acquisition of, businesses and investment strategies complementary to our business. The expansion into new products and geographies has demanded greater management attention and dedication of resources to manage the increasing complexity of operations and regulatory compliance. This growth strategy involves a number of risks, including the risk that the expected

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synergies from a newly developed product or strategic alliance will not be realized, that the expected results will not be achieved, that new strategies are not appropriately planned for or integrated into the firm, that the new strategies may conflict, detract from or compete against our existing businesses, that the investment process, controls and procedures that we have developed around our existing platform will prove insufficient or inadequate or that our information systems and technology, including related security systems, may prove to be inadequate. We have also entered into strategic partnerships and separately managed accounts, which lack the scale of our traditional funds and are more costly to administer. The prevalence of these accounts may also present conflicts and introduce complexity in the deployment of capital. The offering of investment products to retail investors, including any funds registered under the Investment Company Act, may result in increased compliance and litigation costs. We may also incur significant charges in connection with such investments, which ultimately may result in significant losses and costs. Such losses could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as do harm to our professional reputation.
If we are unable to syndicate the securities or indebtedness or realize returns on investments financed with our balance sheet assets, our liquidity, business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our balance sheet assets provide us with a significant source of capital to grow and expand our business, increase our participation in our transactions and underwrite commitments in our capital markets business. Our balance sheet assets have provided a source of capital to underwrite loans, securities or other financial instruments, which we generally expect to syndicate to third parties. To the extent that we are unable to do so, we may be required to sell such investments at a significant loss or hold them indefinitely. If we are required to retain investments on our balance sheet for an extended period of time, the inability of our capital markets business to complete additional transactions would impair our results.
We generally have a larger balance sheet than many of our competitors, and consequently, the performance of these balance sheet assets has a greater impact on our results of operations. Our success in deploying our balance sheet and generating returns on this capital will depend among other things on the availability of suitable opportunities after giving priority in investment opportunities to our advised investment funds and accounts, the level of competition from other companies that may have greater financial resources and our ability to value potential development or acquisition opportunities accurately and negotiate acceptable terms for those opportunities. To the extent we are unsuccessful in deploying our balance sheet , our business and financial results may suffer. In addition, as our balance sheet has been a significant source of capital for new strategies, to the extent that such strategies are not successful or our balance sheet assets cease to provide adequate liquidity, we would be limited in our ability to seed new businesses or support our existing business as effectively as contemplated. See also “-If we are unable to consummate or successfully integrate additional development opportunities, acquisitions or joint ventures, we may not be able to implement our growth strategy successfully.”
Extensive regulation of our businesses affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. The possibility of increased regulatory focus or legislative or regulatory changes could adversely affect our business.
Our business is subject to extensive regulation, including periodic examinations, inquiries and investigations by governmental and self‑regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. Many of these regulators, including U.S. federal and state and foreign government agencies and self‑regulatory organizations, are empowered to impose fines, suspensions of personnel or other sanctions, including censure, the issuance of cease‑and‑desist orders or the suspension or expulsion of applicable licenses and memberships; any of the foregoing may damage our relations with existing fund investors, may impair our ability to raise capital for successor funds, or may contravene provisions concerning compliance with law in agreements to which we are a party. Even if a sanction is not imposed or the sanction imposed against us or our personnel by a regulator were small in monetary amount, the adverse publicity relating to the regulatory activity or imposition of these sanctions could harm our reputation and cause us to lose existing fund investors or fail to gain new fund investors. In addition, actions by regulators against other investment managers can cause changes in business practices that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In particular, the private equity industry has come under increased regulatory and news media scrutiny with governmental officials and regulators, including the SEC, focusing on the private equity industry’s fees, allocation of expenses to funds, valuation practices, allocation of fund investment opportunities, and disclosures to fund investors. SEC focus areas have recently included the acceleration of monitoring fees, the allocation of broken-deal expenses, the disclosure, use and compensation of operating partners or consultants, outside business activities of firm principals and employees, group purchasing arrangements and general conflicts of interest disclosures.
Any changes in the regulatory framework applicable to our business, including the changes and potential changes described below, as well as adverse news media attention, may impose additional expenses or capital requirements on us, limit our fundraising for our investment products, result in limitations in the manner in which our business is conducted, have an adverse impact upon our financial condition, results of operations, reputation or prospects, impair employee retention or

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recruitment and require substantial attention by senior management. It is impossible to determine the extent of the impact of any new laws, regulations, initiatives or regulatory guidance that may be proposed or may become law on our business or the markets in which we operate. If enacted, any new regulation or regulatory framework could negatively impact our funds and us in a number of ways, including increasing our costs and the cost for our funds of investing, borrowing, hedging or operating, increasing the funds’ or our regulatory operating costs, imposing additional burdens on the funds’ or our staff, and potentially requiring the disclosure of sensitive information. In addition, we may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules by these governmental authorities and self‑regulatory organizations. New laws or regulations could make compliance more difficult or more expensive, affect the manner in which we conduct business and divert significant management and operational resources and attention from our business. Moreover, we anticipate the potential for an increase in regulatory investigations and new or enhanced reporting requirements of the trading and other investment activities of alternative investment management funds and firms, including our funds and us. Such investigations and reporting obligations will likely impose additional expenses on us, may require the attention of senior management and increase the complexity of managing our business and may result in fines or other sanctions if we or any of our funds are deemed to have violated any law or regulations.
Regulation under the Dodd‑Frank Act. There have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals affecting the financial sector in the United States. In particular, the Dodd‑Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or Dodd‑Frank Act, that President Obama signed into law on July 21, 2010, created a significant amount of new regulation. Among other things, the Dodd‑Frank Act:
established the Financial Stability Oversight Council, or FSOC, an inter‑agency body charged with, among other things, designating systemically important nonbank financial companies for heightened prudential supervision and making recommendations regarding the imposition of enhanced regulatory standards regarding capital, leverage, conflicts and other requirements for financial firms deemed to pose a systemic threat to U.S. financial stability;
requires private equity and hedge fund advisers to register with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act (as described elsewhere in this report, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. and its wholly‑owned subsidiaries KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC and Prisma Capital Partners LP are registered with the SEC as investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act), to maintain extensive records and to file reports if deemed necessary for purposes of systemic risk assessment by certain governmental bodies;
directs federal regulatory agencies to review and, in certain cases, prohibit compensation arrangements at financial institutions that give employees incentives to engage in conduct deemed to encourage inappropriate risk taking by covered financial institutions;
requires public companies to adopt and disclose policies requiring, in the event the company is required to issue an accounting restatement, the clawback of related incentive compensation from current and former executive officers;
restricts the ability of banking organizations to sponsor or invest in private equity and hedge funds;
granted the U.S. government resolution authority to liquidate or take emergency measures with regard to troubled financial institutions that fall outside the existing resolution authority of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or FDIC; and
created a Consumer Financial Protection Bureau within the U.S. Federal Reserve.
Some of these provisions are subject to further rule making and to the discretion of regulatory bodies, such as the FSOC. For example, the following rulemakings have been enacted and the following notices of proposed rulemakings have been announced that may apply to us or our subsidiaries:
On April 3, 2012, the FSOC issued a final rule and interpretive guidance regarding the process by which it designates nonbank financial companies as systemically important. The rule and guidance detail a three‑stage review process, with the level of scrutiny increasing at each stage. During the first stage, the FSOC applies a broad set of uniform quantitative metrics to identify nonbank financial companies that warrant additional review. In this first stage, the FSOC considers whether a nonbank financial company has at least $50 billion in total consolidated assets and whether it meets other thresholds relating to credit default swaps outstanding, derivative liabilities, loans and bonds outstanding, a minimum leverage ratio of total consolidated assets to total equity of 15 to 1, and a short‑term debt ratio of debt (with maturities less than 12 months) to total consolidated assets of 10%. A company that meets both the asset test and at least one of the other thresholds will be subject to additional review in Stage 2. Although we have

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more than $50 billion in total consolidated assets as of December 31, 2015, we believe we do not currently meet the Stage 1 criteria outlined above; however, those criteria as well as our business may evolve over time. Additional uncertainty is created because the FSOC retains authority to designate any nonbank financial company as systemically important, even if the company does not meet the Stage 1 criteria. The FSOC will consider in the future whether to establish “an additional set of metrics or thresholds tailored to evaluate hedge funds and private equity firms and their advisers.” The preamble to the final rule notes that less regulatory data is generally available for hedge funds and private equity firms, but indicates that, in developing any such additional metrics or thresholds, it intends to review financial disclosures that private fund advisers are required to file with the SEC and CFTC, as further described below.
In May 2014, the FSOC hosted a public conference devoted exclusively to the asset management industry to help inform the FSOC’s ongoing assessment of potential risks to U.S. financial stability. On December 18, 2014, the FSOC issued a notice seeking public comment on potential systemic risks from asset management products and activities, focusing in particular on (1) liquidity and redemption risks, (2) use of leverage, (3) operational functions, and (4) resolution‑related issues. According to such notice, the FSOC has not made any determination regarding the existence or nature of any potential risks to financial stability posed by the asset management industry.
If the FSOC were to determine that we were a systemically important nonbank financial company, we would be subject to a heightened degree of regulation, including more stringent standards relating to capital, leverage, liquidity, risk management, resolution planning, credit exposure reporting, and concentration limits, restrictions on acquisitions and annual stress testing by the Federal Reserve. There can be no assurance that nonbank financial firms such as us will not become subject to the aforementioned restrictions or other requirements for financial firms deemed to be systemically important to the financial stability of the U.S. economy.
The Dodd‑Frank Act, under what has become known as the “Volcker Rule,” broadly prohibits depository institution holding companies (including foreign banks with U.S. branches or agencies), insured depository institutions and their subsidiaries and controlled affiliates (or banking entities), from investing in third‑party private equity funds like ours. See “-Our inability to raise additional or successor funds (or raise successor funds of a comparable size as our predecessor funds) could have a material adverse impact on our business.”
On October 26, 2011, the SEC adopted a rule requiring certain advisers to private funds to periodically file reports on Form PF. Large private fund advisers including advisers with at least $1.5 billion in assets under management attributable to hedge funds and advisers with at least $2 billion in assets under management attributable to private equity funds are subject to more detailed and in certain cases more frequent reporting requirements. The information is to be used by the FSOC in monitoring risks to the U.S. financial system.
On March 2, 2011, the SEC issued for public comment a proposed a rule as part of a joint rule‑making effort with other federal regulatory agencies designed to prohibit certain incentive‑based compensation arrangements deemed to encourage inappropriate risk taking by covered financial institutions by providing "excessive" compensation, fees or benefits or that could lead to material losses. The proposed rule would cover financial institutions with total consolidated assets of at least $1 billion, including investment advisers and broker‑dealers, and provide heightened requirements for financial institutions with total consolidated assets of at least $50 billion. The application of this rule to us could require us to substantially revise our compensation strategy and affect our ability to recruit and retain qualified employees.
The Dodd‑Frank Act amended the Exchange Act to compensate and protect whistleblowers who voluntarily provide original information to the SEC and establishes a fund to be used to pay whistleblowers who will be entitled to receive a payment equal to between 10% and 30% of certain monetary sanctions imposed in a successful government action resulting from the information provided by the whistleblower.
As mandated by the Dodd‑Frank Act, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, or CFTC, has proposed or adopted a series of rules to establish a comprehensive new regulatory framework for swaps. Under Title VII of the Dodd‑Frank Act, the CFTC has assumed regulatory authority over many types of swaps. As a result:
Operating pooled funds, or providing investment advice to clients that trade swaps is now a basis for registration with the CFTC, absent an applicable exemption. Also, although not mandated by the Dodd‑Frank Act, the CFTC in 2012 issued a final rule that rescinded an exemption from CFTC registration for commodity pool operators in connection with privately offered funds. Operating our funds in a manner consistent with one or more exemptions from registration with the CFTC may limit the activities of certain of our funds, and monitoring and analysis of these

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exemptions requires management and operational resources and attention. Registration with the CFTC, if required, could impact our operations and add additional costs associated with ongoing compliance.
The Dodd‑Frank Act also imposes regulatory requirements on the trading of swaps, including requirements that most swaps be executed on an exchange or “swap execution facility” and cleared through a central clearing house. Although these requirements presently apply only to certain classes of interest rate and credit default swaps, the CFTC is expected to mandate central execution and clearing with respect to additional classes of swaps in the future.
The CFTC issued regulations with quantitative tests and thresholds to determine whether entities acting as “swap dealers” or “major swap participants” must register in the appropriate category and comply with capital, margin, record keeping, reporting and business conduct rules. Our funds could become subject to the requirement to register as major swap participants due to changes to the funds’ investment strategy or valuations, or revisions to the thresholds for registration.
The CFTC has proposed rules instituting position limits on certain physical commodity futures contracts that, if finalized as proposed, would limit positions in 28 agricultural, energy and metals commodities, including swaps, futures and options that are economically equivalent to those commodity contracts. If the proposed rules are adopted in substantially the form proposed and to the extent that we do not qualify for an exemption, we may be required to aggregate the positions of our various investment funds and the positions of our portfolio companies, which in turn may require us and our portfolio companies to limit our trading activities, and impact the ability of our investment funds to invest or remain invested in certain derivatives, or engage in otherwise profitable acquisitions in particular industries. The Dodd-Frank Act also requires SEC to establish position limits on security-based swaps, which rules could have a similar impact on our business.
The CFTC and banking regulators have adopted, and the SEC has proposed, rules regarding minimum margin and capital requirements for over‑the‑counter swaps. The imposition of these requirements could increase the cost of trading in the derivative markets, which could in turn make it more expensive and difficult for us or our funds to enter into swaps and other derivatives in the normal course of our business and reduce the effectiveness of the funds’ investment strategies. These rules could also adversely impact liquidity in derivatives markets, which could expose our funds to greater risks and reduce hedging opportunities in connection with their trading activities. The compliance dates for the CTFC and banking margin rules will be phased in between 2016 and 2020, depending on the aggregate notional amount of over-the-counter swaps traded by market participants and their affiliates.
Additionally, federal banking and housing agencies finalized rules implementing the Dodd-Frank Act's five percent risk retention requirement for originators of asset-backed securities. Although such rules will not become fully effective until December 24, 2016, they contain provisions may have an adverse effect on us and/or the holders of the notes issued by our CLOs, or on the primary or secondary market for CLO securities generally, including the level of liquidity and trading of CLO securities.

The implementation of any new regulations could increase the cost of trading in the commodities and derivative markets, which could in turn make it more expensive and difficult for us or our funds to enter into swaps and other derivatives in the normal course of our business. Moreover, these increased regulatory responsibilities and increased costs could reduce trading levels in the commodities and derivative markets by a number of market participants, which could in turn adversely impact liquidity in the markets and expose our funds to greater risks in connection with their trading activities.
EU‑Wide Regulations. The EU Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD) entered into effect on July 22, 2013. The AIFMD establishes a comprehensive regulatory and supervisory framework for alternative investment fund managers (AIFMs) managing and/or marketing alternative investment funds (AIFs) in the EU. The AIFMD imposes various substantive requirements on authorized AIFMs including rules on the structure of remuneration for certain personnel that are similar to those applicable under CRD III and IV (as defined below), a threshold for regulatory capital, reporting obligations in respect of controlled EU portfolio companies and increased transparency towards investors and regulators and allows authorized AIFMs to market AIFs to professional investors throughout the EU under an “EU passport”. The AIFMD also imposes a new, strict depositary regime.
The EU passport has been available to authorized EU AIFMs, since July 2013 but has yet to become available to non EU AIFMs. In the meantime (and until at least 2018), non‑EU AIFMs may continue to market within the EU under the private placement regimes (NPPRs) of the individual member states, where available, subject to complying with certain minimum requirements imposed by the AIFMD and any additional requirements that individual member states may impose. In 2015, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) published advice in relation to the application of the EU passport to non-EU AIFMs and AIFs from certain jurisdictions and its opinion on the function of the EU passport for EU AIFMS and NPPRs.

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Upon the effectiveness of any measures adopted by the EU Commission extending the EU passport to non-EU AIFMs and AIFs, the NPPRs allowing marketing by non-EU authorized AIFMs in certain member states will likely be further restricted, and NPPRs may become unavailable for marketing by non-EU authorized AIFMs in all member states as early as 2019. While our authorized EU AIFs continue to be marketed under an EU passport, the availability of the NPPRs and the uncertainty regarding the application of the EU passport to non EU AIFMs and AIFs may adversely impact the marketing of new strategies.
The AIFMD, the Level 2 Regulation and EU member state implementing measures could have an adverse effect on our businesses by, among other things, (i) imposing disclosure obligations and restrictions on distributions by EU portfolio companies of the funds we manage, (ii) potentially requiring changes in our compensation structures for key personnel, thereby potentially affecting our ability to recruit and retain these personnel, and (iii) generally increasing our compliance costs. Although a subsidiary of ours is registered as an Irish AIFM, we may not be able to benefit from the EU marketing passport for all of our funds under the AIFMD. In addition, there are areas of the AIFMD that are subject to legal uncertainty, including the scope of the legal structures qualifying as AIFs whose management and marketing requires authorization, and failure to comply even in areas where there is legal uncertainty can result in fines. Compliance with the AIFMD has also increased the cost and complexity of raising capital for our funds and consequently may also slow the pace of fundraising.
In July 2014, revisions to the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (known as MiFID I), consisting of the revised directive, MiFID II, and a new related regulation, MiFIR, came into force; however, the date upon which they will apply to our business is uncertain. MiFID II and MiFIR further strengthen the EU regulatory framework for the provision of investment services and trading in financial instruments by introducing a number of substantial reforms in regards to transaction reporting, market structure, securities trading and conduct of business rules, including new harmonized rules for authorization of EU branches of third country firms looking to provide certain investment services in the EU. Work on the Level 2 measures on MiFID II is still under way, and the final delegated acts have not yet been adopted. The application of MiFID II and MiFIR will result in new regulatory burdens, including the requirement to trade certain derivatives on regulated trading venues. The increased regulatory burden could result in increased costs, and any failure to comply with the new requirements, even in areas where there is legal uncertainty, could result in fines.
On January 1, 2011, an amendment to the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD III) entered into force. Among other things, CRD III required EU member states to introduce stricter controls on remuneration for key employees and risk takers within specified credit institutions and investment firms. The CRD III was further amended by the Capital Requirements Directive IV and the Capital Requirements Regulation as discussed below, which introduced a limited number of additional remuneration requirements, including a cap on variable remuneration. Two of our subsidiaries (established in the UK and Ireland) are subject to the remuneration‑related requirements of CRD IV and similar requirements under the AIFMD. Additionally, the European Banking Authority has published final guidelines on sound remuneration policies under CRD IV which set out the requirements for remuneration policies, group application and proportionality, along with criteria for the allocation of remuneration as fixed and variable and details on the disclosures required under the Capital Requirements Regulation. These guidelines will apply from January 1, 2017. These measures required changes in our compensation structures for key personnel, thereby potentially affecting these subsidiaries’ ability to recruit and retain these personnel.
In 2010, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, an international body comprised of senior representatives of bank supervisory authorities and central banks from 27 countries, including the United States, finalized a comprehensive set of capital and liquidity standards, commonly referred to as “Basel III,” for internationally active banking organizations. These new standards, which are expected to be fully phased in by 2019, are expected to require banks to hold more capital, predominantly in the form of common equity, than under the current capital framework. In the EU, Basel III’s capital and liquidity standards have been implemented in a revision to CRD III and a new Capital Requirements Regulation, collectively referred to as CRD IV, which came into force on January 1, 2014. CRD IV replaced CRD III and created a single harmonized prudential rule book for banks, introducing new corporate governance rules and enhanced the powers of regulators. Like CRD III, CRD IV applies to specified credit institutions and investment firms. CRD IV has enhanced our financial reporting obligations and subjected us to new reporting requirements, which increases costs and the risk of non‑compliance.
In August 2012, the regulation on OTC Derivatives, Central Counterparties and Trade Repositories (also known as the European Market Infrastructure Regulation, or EMIR) became effective. EMIR applies to derivatives transactions in which one of the parties is established in the EU, and may in some circumstances apply to transactions between two non‑EU counterparties where these contracts have a direct, substantial and foreseeable effect within the EU. Certain of the requirements of EMIR came into force in March 2013, and other obligations will be phased in. In particular, EMIR imposes a requirement that certain “standardized” OTC derivatives contracts are centrally cleared. This requirement will be phased in based on the relevant entities' activities over a period from June 2016 to December 2018. Where OTC transactions are not subject to central clearing, techniques must be employed to monitor, measure and mitigate the operational and counterparty risks presented by the transaction. These risk mitigation techniques include trade confirmation, reconciliation processes, exchange of margin, and the daily mark to market of trades. Certain of these risk mitigation and reporting obligations are already in force. Initial margin

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requirement for uncleared trades are expected to be phased in between September 1, 2016 and September 1, 2020. Variation margin requirements for uncleared trades are expected to be phased in between September 1, 2016, and March 1, 2017. The European Commission has not yet adopted an equivalence decision for the U.S., but “conditional” equivalence has been proposed in relation to certain parts of the CFTC and SEC regimes, whereby adherence to the relevant U.S. regimes as well as a number of additional stipulations would deemed equivalent to EMIR. Ongoing regulatory uncertainty regarding the interaction between U.S. and EU requirements for central clearing and related activities could result in duplicative regulatory obligations in the two jurisdictions and could increase our costs of compliance. The implementation of any new regulations could increase the cost of trading in the commodities and derivative markets, which could in turn make it more expensive and difficult for us or our funds to enter into swaps and other derivatives in the normal course of our business. Moreover, these increased regulatory responsibilities and increased costs could reduce trading levels in the commodities and derivative markets by a number of market participants, which could in turn adversely impact liquidity in the markets and expose our funds to greater risks in connection with their trading activities.
A number of other EU financial regulatory initiatives have the potential to adversely affect our business. Future acquisitions by KKR or our funds could lead to application of the EU’s Financial Conglomerates Directive, which introduced a prudential regime for financial conglomerates to address perceived risks associated with large cross‑sector businesses, and could increase the costs of investing in insurance companies and banks in the EU. Other recent EU financial regulatory initiatives include the Short Selling Regulation, which limits sovereign and naked short selling of government bonds and stocks, the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), which established a recovery and resolution framework for EU credit institutions and investment firms, a new regulation (CSDR) on central securities depositories (CSDs), which introduces common securities settlement standards across the EU and harmonizes the rules governing CSDs, and a new regulation on reporting and transparency of securities financing transactions (SFT Regulation), which requires all SFTs to be reported to trade repositories, places additional reporting requirements on investment managers, and introduces prior risk disclosures and written consent before assets are rehypothecated. The European Commission has also proposed a Money Market Funds (MMF) Regulation. The EU has adopted certain risk retention and due diligence requirements in respect of various types of EU-regulated investors that, among other things, restrict investors from taking positions in securitization. The implementation of these new requirements could increase our and our funds’ costs and the complexity of managing our business and could result in fines if we or any of our funds were deemed to have violated any of the new regulations.
Other regulations of the financial markets. Certain requirements imposed by regulators are designed primarily to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and are not designed to protect holders of interests in our business or our funds. Consequently, these regulations often serve to limit our activities. In addition to many of the regulations and proposed regulations described above under “-Regulation under the Dodd‑Frank Act,” and “-EU‑Wide Regulation,” U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies have issued leveraged lending guidance covering transactions characterized by a degree of financial leverage. Such guidance limits the amount or availability of debt financing and may increase the cost of financing we are able to obtain for our transactions and may cause the returns on our investments to suffer.
Regulators in the U.S. and abroad are also considering a variety of regulatory measures that could affect various non‑bank financial institutions that operate outside of the regulated banking system and the activities in which they engage. These reform measures are generally intended to mitigate against the kind of market disruptions that prevailed in 2008 and 2009 and that ultimately affected both banks and non‑banks. If these regulations are adopted, they could impose additional regulatory burdens and costs, including potentially imposing capital requirements, limiting financing and leverage and increasing costs, in each case causing the returns on our lending and credit investment activities to suffer. Certain of our businesses may also be directly subject to such new regulation, which could cause such businesses to limit or cease engaging in certain activities.
Certain of the funds and accounts we manage that engage in originating, lending and/or servicing loans, may consider investments that would subject us to state and federal regulation, borrower disclosure requirements, limits on fees and interest rates on some loans, state lender licensing requirements and other regulatory requirements in the conduct of their business. If our funds and accounts make these investments, they may also be subject to consumer disclosures and substantive requirements on consumer loan terms and other federal regulatory requirements applicable to consumer lending that are administered by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. These state and federal regulatory programs are designed to protect borrowers.
State and federal regulators and other governmental entities have authority to bring administrative enforcement actions or litigation to enforce compliance with applicable lending or consumer protection laws, with remedies that can include fines and monetary penalties, restitution of borrowers, injunctions to conform to law, or limitation or revocation of licenses and other remedies and penalties. In addition, lenders and servicers may be subject to litigation brought by or on behalf of borrowers for violations of laws or unfair or deceptive practices. If we enter into transactions that subject us to these risks, failure to conform to applicable regulatory and legal requirements could be costly and have a detrimental impact on certain of our funds and accounts and ultimately on us

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Portfolio Company Regulatory Environment. We are subject to certain laws, such as certain environmental laws, takeover laws, anti‑bribery and anti‑corruption laws, escheat or abandoned property laws, and antitrust laws, that may impose requirements on us and our portfolio companies as an affiliated group. As a result, we could become jointly and severally liable for all or part of fines imposed on our portfolio companies or be fined directly for violations committed by portfolio companies, and such fines imposed directly on us could be greater than those imposed on the portfolio company. Compliance with these laws or contracts could also require us to commit significant resources and capital towards information gathering and monitoring thereby increasing our operating costs. For example, on April 2, 2014, the European Commission announced that it had fined 11 producers of underground and submarine high voltage power cables a total of 302 million euro for participation in a ten‑year market and customer sharing cartel. Fines were also imposed on parent companies of the producers involved, including Goldman Sachs, the former parent company of one of the cartel members. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has proposed a rule requiring regional transmission organizations and independent systems operators to collect, report and keep updated substantial information concerning their ownership structure and corporate relationships, corporate officers, direct and indirect investors (including non-controlling and passive non-voting investors), and lending and other material contractual relationships. If such rules are adopted as proposed, we and certain of our portfolio companies may become subject to costly and burdensome data collection and reporting requirements.
In the United States, certain statutes may subject us or our funds to the liabilities of our portfolio companies. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, also referred to as the Superfund, requires cleanup of sites from which there has been a release or threatened release of hazardous substances, and authorizes the EPA to take any necessary response action at Superfund sites, including ordering potentially responsible parties liable for the release to pay for such actions. Potentially responsible parties are broadly defined under CERCLA. In addition, we or certain of our investment funds could potentially be held liable under ERISA for the pension obligations of one or more of our portfolio companies if we or the investment fund were determined to be a “trade or business” under ERISA and deemed part of the same “controlled group” as the portfolio company under such rules, and the pension obligations of any particular portfolio company could be material. In a decision of a federal appellate court (Sun Capital Partners III LP v. New England Teamsters & Trucking Indus. Pension Fund), a private equity firm was held to be engaged in a “trade or business” under ERISA.
Similarly, our portfolio companies may be subject to contractual obligations which may impose obligations or restrictions on their affiliates. The interpretation of such contractual provisions will depend on local laws. Given that we do not control all of our portfolio companies and that our portfolio companies generally operate independently of each other, there is a risk that we could contravene one or more of such laws, regulations and contractual arrangements due to limited access and opportunities to monitor compliance. In addition, compliance with these laws or contracts could require us to commit significant resources and capital towards information gathering and monitoring thereby increasing our operating costs.
Complex regulations may limit our ability to raise capital, increase the costs of our capital raising activities and may subject us to penalties.
We regularly rely on exemptions in the United States from various requirements of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the Investment Company Act, the Commodity Exchange Act and the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, or ERISA, in conducting our investment management activities. These exemptions are sometimes highly complex and may in certain circumstances depend on compliance by third parties whom we do not control. If for any reason these exemptions were to become unavailable to us, we could become subject to additional restrictive and costly registration requirements, regulatory action, or third party claims and our business could be materially and adversely affected. For example, in raising new funds, we typically rely on private placement exemptions from registration under the Securities Act, including Regulation D, which was recently amended to prohibit issuers (including our funds) from relying on certain of the exemptions from registration if the fund or any of its “covered persons” (including certain officers and directors, but also including certain third parties including, among others, promoters, placement agents and beneficial owners of 20% of outstanding voting securities of the fund) has been the subject of a “disqualifying event,” or a “bad actor,” which can include a variety of criminal, regulatory and civil matters. If any of the covered persons associated with our funds is subject to a disqualifying event, one or more of our funds could lose the ability to raise capital in a Rule 506 private offering for a significant period of time, which could significantly impair our ability to raise new funds, and, therefore, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if certain of our employees or any potential significant investor has been the subject of a disqualifying event, we could be required to reassign or terminate such an employee or we could be required to refuse the investment of such an investor, which could impair our relationships with investors, harm our reputation, or make it more difficult to raise new funds. See also “-Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure-If we were deemed to be an “investment company” subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on our business.”

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We are and will become further subject to additional regulatory and compliance burdens as we expand our product offerings and investment platform to include retail investors. For example, funds in our Public Markets segment are registered under the Investment Company Act as management investment companies. These funds and KKR Credit Advisors (US) LLC, which serves as their investment adviser (or in the case of a BDC, as its sub‑adviser), are subject to the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder, which, among other things, regulate the relationship between a registered investment company (or business development company) and its investment adviser and prohibit or severely restrict principal transactions and joint transactions. As our business expands we may be required to make additional registrations, including in jurisdictions outside the U.S. Compliance with these rules will increase our compliance costs and create potential for additional liabilities and penalties the management of which would divert management’s attention from our business and investments.
In June 2010, the SEC approved Rule 206(4)‑5 under the Advisers Act regarding “pay to play” practices by investment advisers involving campaign contributions and other payments to government clients and elected officials able to exert influence on such clients. Among other restrictions, the rule prohibits investment advisers from providing advisory services for compensation to a government client for two years, subject to very limited exceptions, after the investment adviser, its senior executives or its personnel involved in soliciting investments from government entities make contributions to certain candidates and officials in position to influence the hiring of an investment adviser by such government client. Advisers are required to implement compliance policies designed, among other matters, to track contributions by certain of the adviser’s employees and engagements of third parties that solicit government entities and to keep certain records in order to enable the SEC to determine compliance with the rule. There has also been similar rule‑making on a state‑level regarding “pay to play” practices by investment advisers, including in California and New York, and FINRA has proposed its own set of regulations. Any failure on our part to comply with these rules could cause us to lose compensation for our advisory services or expose us to significant penalties and reputational damage.
Federal, state and foreign anti‑corruption and sanctions laws applicable to us and our portfolio companies creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties and reputational harm.
We are also subject to a number of laws and regulations governing payments and contributions to political persons or other third parties, including restrictions imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, as well as trade sanctions and export control laws administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of State. The FCPA is intended to prohibit bribery of foreign governments and their officials and political parties, and requires public companies in the United States to keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect those companies’ transactions. OFAC, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of State administer and enforce various export control laws and regulations, including economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign states, organizations and individuals. These laws and regulations relate to a number of aspects of our business, including servicing existing fund investors, finding new fund investors, and sourcing new investments, as well as activities by the portfolio companies in our investment portfolio or other controlled investments.
The Iran Threat Reduction and Syrian Human Rights Act of 2012 (“ITRA”) expanded the scope of U.S. sanctions against Iran and amended the Exchange Act. Specifically, Section 219 of the ITRA amended the Exchange Act to require public reporting companies to disclose in their annual or quarterly reports any dealings or transactions the company or its affiliates engaged in during the previous reporting period involving Iran or other individuals and entities targeted by certain OFAC sanctions. In some cases, ITRA requires companies to disclose these types of transactions even if they are permissible under U.S. law or are conducted outside of the United States by a foreign affiliate. We are required to separately file, concurrently with this annual report, a notice that such activities have been disclosed in this annual report. The SEC is required to post this notice of disclosure on its website and send the report to the U.S. President and certain U.S. Congressional committees. The U.S. President thereafter is required to initiate an investigation and, within 180 days of initiating such an investigation, to determine whether sanctions should be imposed. Disclosure of such activity, even if such activity is not subject to sanctions under applicable law, and any sanctions actually imposed on us or our affiliates as a result of these activities, could harm our reputation and have a negative impact on our business.
Similar laws in non‑U.S. jurisdictions, such as EU sanctions or the U.K. Bribery Act, as well as other applicable anti‑bribery, anti‑corruption, anti‑money laundering, or sanction or other export control laws in the U.S. and abroad, may also impose stricter or more onerous requirements than the FCPA, OFAC, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of State, and implementing them may disrupt our business or cause us to incur significantly more costs to comply with those laws. Different laws may also contain conflicting provisions, making compliance with all laws more difficult. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we could be exposed to claims for damages, civil or criminal financial penalties, reputational harm, incarceration of our employees, restrictions on our operations and other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, we may be subject to successor liability for FCPA

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violations or other acts of bribery, or violations of applicable sanctions or other export control laws committed by companies in which we or our funds invest or which we or our funds acquire.
We are subject to substantial litigation risks and may face significant liabilities and damage to our professional reputation as a result of litigation allegations and negative publicity.
The activities of our businesses, including the investment decisions we make and the activities of our employees in connection with our portfolio companies, may subject us and them to the risk of litigation by third parties, including fund investors dissatisfied with the performance or management of their funds, debt or equity holders of our portfolio companies, and a variety of other potential litigants. See the section entitled “Litigation” appearing in Note 17 “Commitments and Contingencies” of our financial statements included elsewhere in this report. By way of example, we, our funds and certain of our employees are each exposed to the risks of litigation relating to investment activities of our funds and actions taken by the officers and directors (some of whom may be KKR employees) of portfolio companies, such as the risk of shareholder litigation by other shareholders of public companies or holders of debt instruments of companies in which our funds have significant investments. We are also exposed to risks of litigation, investigation or negative publicity in the event of any transactions that are alleged not to have been properly addressed.
To the extent investors in our investment funds suffer losses resulting from fraud, gross negligence, willful misconduct or other similar misconduct, such investors may have remedies against us, our investment funds, our employees or our affiliates. Investors in our funds do not have legal remedies against us, the general partners of our funds, our funds, our employees or our affiliates solely based on their dissatisfaction with the investment performance of those funds. While the general partners and investment advisers to our investment funds, including their directors, officers, employees and affiliates, are generally indemnified to the fullest extent permitted by law with respect to their conduct in connection with the management of the business and affairs of our investment funds, such indemnity generally does not extend to actions determined to have involved fraud, gross negligence, willful misconduct or other similar misconduct.
In addition, we have formed and may continue to form funds targeting retail investors, which may subject us to additional risk of litigation and regulatory scrutiny. See-“Extensive regulation of our businesses affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. The possibility of increased regulatory focus or legislative or regulatory changes could adversely affect our business.”
If any civil or criminal lawsuits were brought against us and resulted in a finding of substantial legal liability or culpability, the lawsuit could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations or cause significant reputational harm to us, which could seriously impact our business. We depend to a large extent on our business relationships and our reputation for integrity and high caliber professional services to attract and retain fund investors and qualified professionals and to pursue investment opportunities for our funds. As a result, allegations of improper conduct by private litigants or regulators, whether the ultimate outcome is favorable or unfavorable to us, as well as negative publicity and press speculation about us, our investment activities or the private equity industry in general, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation, which may be more damaging to our business than to other types of businesses.
In addition, with a workforce composed of many highly paid professionals, we face the risk of litigation relating to claims for compensation or other damages, which may, individually or in the aggregate, be significant in amount. The cost of settling any such claims could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Misconduct of our employees or by our portfolio companies could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain clients and subjecting us to significant legal liability and reputational harm.
There is a risk that our principals and employees could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. We are subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from our business and our authority over the assets we manage. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of our employees would adversely affect our clients and us. We may also be adversely affected if there is misconduct by senior management of portfolio companies in which our funds invest, even though we may be unable to control or mitigate such misconduct. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to companies in which we may invest. If our employees were improperly to use or disclose confidential information, we could suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships, as well as face potentially significant litigation. It is not always possible to detect or deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If any of our employees or the employees of portfolio companies were to engage in misconduct or were to be accused of such misconduct, our business and our reputation could be adversely affected.

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Underwriting, syndicating and securities placement activities expose us to risks.
KKR Capital Markets LLC or KCM, a subsidiary of ours, may act as an underwriter, syndicator or placement agent in securities offerings, and our joint venture’s subsidiary, MCS Capital Markets LLC, may also act as an underwriter, syndicator or placement agent in securities offerings. We may incur losses and be subject to reputational harm to the extent that, for any reason, we are unable to sell securities or indebtedness we purchased or placed as an underwriter, syndicator or placement agent at the anticipated price levels. As an underwriter, syndicator or placement agent, we also may be subject to potential liability for material misstatements or omissions in prospectuses and other offering documents relating to offerings we underwrite, syndicate or place.
We are subject to risks in using prime brokers, custodians, administrators and other agents.
Certain of our investment funds and our principal activities depend on the services of prime brokers, custodians, administrators and other agents to carry out certain securities transactions.
In the event of the insolvency of a prime broker and/or custodian, our funds may not be able to recover equivalent assets in full as they will rank among the prime broker’s and custodian’s unsecured creditors in relation to assets which the prime broker or custodian borrows, lends or otherwise uses. In addition, our and our funds’ cash held with a prime broker or custodian may not be segregated from the prime broker’s or custodian’s own cash, and our funds therefore may rank as unsecured creditors in relation thereto. The inability to recover assets from the prime broker or custodian could have a material impact on the performance of our funds and our business, financial condition and results of operations. Counterparties have generally reacted to recent market volatility by tightening their underwriting standards and increasing their margin requirements for all categories of financing, which has the result of decreasing the overall amount of leverage available and increasing the costs of borrowing. Many of our funds have credit lines, and if a lender under one or more of these credit lines were to become insolvent, we may have difficulty replacing the credit line and one or more of our funds may face liquidity problems.
Default risk may arise from events or circumstances that are difficult to detect, foresee or evaluate. In addition, concerns about, or a default by, one large participant could lead to significant liquidity problems for other participants, which may in turn expose us to significant losses. We may not accurately anticipate the impact of market stress or counterparty financial condition, and as a result, we may not have taken sufficient action to reduce these risks effectively.
Compliance with applicable accounting requirements may materially strain our resources, materially increase our annual expenses and exposes us to other risks.
The SEC may require in the future that we report our financial results under International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, instead of under U.S. GAAP. IFRS is a set of accounting principles that has been gaining acceptance on a worldwide basis. These standards are published by the London‑ based International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and are more focused on objectives and principles and less reliant on detailed rules than U.S. GAAP. Today, there remain significant and material differences in several key areas between U.S. GAAP and IFRS which would affect us if we were required to prepare financial statements in conformity with IFRS. Additionally, U.S. GAAP provides specific guidance in classes of accounting transactions for which equivalent guidance in IFRS does not exist. The adoption of IFRS is highly complex and would have an impact on many aspects and operations of KKR, including but not limited to financial accounting and reporting systems, internal controls, taxes, borrowing covenants and cash management. It is expected that a significant amount of time, internal and external resources and expenses over a multi‑year period would be required for this conversion.

Risks Related to the Assets We Manage
As an investment manager, we sponsor and manage funds that make investments worldwide on behalf of third‑party investors and, in connection with those activities, are required to deploy our own capital in those investments. The investments of these funds are subject to many risks and uncertainties which, to the extent they are material, are discussed below. In addition, we have balance sheet investments and manage those assets on our own behalf. These risks, as they apply to our balance sheet investments, may have a greater impact on our results and financial conditions as we directly bear the full risk of our balance sheet. As a result, the gains and losses on such assets are reflected in our net income and the risks set forth below relating to the assets that we manage will directly affect our operating performance.

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The historical returns attributable to our funds, including those presented in this report, should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds, our balance sheet or of our future results or of any returns on our common units.
We have presented in this report certain information relating to our investment returns, such as net and gross IRRs, multiples of invested capital and realized and unrealized investment values for funds that we have sponsored and managed. The historical and potential future returns of the funds that we manage are not directly linked to returns on KKR Group Partnership Units.
Moreover, historical returns of our funds may not be indicative of the future results that you should expect from us, which could negatively impact the fees and incentive amounts received by us from such funds. In particular, the future results of our funds or balance sheet assets may differ significantly from their historical results including for the following reasons:
the rates of returns of our funds reflect unrealized gains as of the applicable valuation date that may never be realized, which may adversely affect the ultimate value realized from those funds’ investments;
the historical returns that we present in this report derive largely from the performance of our earlier private equity funds, whereas future fund returns will depend increasingly on the performance of our newer funds, which may have little or no investment track record, and in particular you will not benefit from any value that was created in our funds prior to the KPE Transaction to the extent such value has been realized and we may be required to repay excess amounts previously received in respect of carried interest in our funds if, upon liquidation of the fund, we have received carried interest distributions in excess of the amount to which we were entitled;
the future performance of our funds will be affected by macroeconomic factors, including negative factors arising from disruptions in the global financial markets that were not prevalent in the periods relevant to the historical return data included in this report;
in some historical periods, the rates of return of some of our funds have been positively influenced by a number of investments that experienced a substantial decrease in the average holding period of such investments and rapid and substantial increases in value following the dates on which those investments were made; the actual or expected length of holding periods related to investments is likely longer than such historical periods; those trends and rates of return may not be repeated in the future;
our newly established funds may generate lower returns during the period that they take to deploy their capital;
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